|ASTAXANTHIN Side Effects
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Astaxanthin Safety Issue and Astaxanthin Side effects
Most online articles state astaxanthin is safe, with no side effects when it is consumed in amounts found in food.
However, safety and side effects of using astaxanthin supplements and astaxanthin in skin products are unknown. A rat
study supports the claim that astaxanthin is sate without side effects at low doses.  Further, a study of 35 healthy
adults reveals that 6 mg of astaxanthin per day can be safely consumed by healthy adults.  One study on how
astaxanthin affects on human blood rheology was investigated in 20 adult men. A blood rheology test that measures
whole blood transit time was conducted using heparinized blood of the volunteers. After administration of astaxanthin 6
mg/day for 10 days, the values of the experimental group were decreased from 52.8 to 47.6 s and a comparison of the
values between the experimental 47.6 s and the placebo 54.2 s groups showed a significant difference. There were no
adverse side effects resulting from the administration of astaxanthin 6 mg/day for 10 days. 
Though most online articles suggest there is no side effects associated with oral intake of astaxanthin, high doses of
astaxanthin indeed lead to certain side effects. A study was designed to determine the organ distribution of high doses
of astaxanthin in rats after oral application, a two week experiment was conducted and dose response (0.3, 1 and 3%
of the feed). Low astaxanthin concentrations were detected in the viscera, distributed in a wide range, and not
increasing from 7th to 14th day. This indicates that there was rapid elimination or catabolism and no profound long
term storage. Liver concentration was unexpectedly low while the highest concentrations were found in spleen, kidneys
and adrenals. The main site of astaxanthin accumulation, indeed, was the hairless skin of the tail, this was associated
with red coloration. Because the discoloration was not observed until the second week and the variability in the
astaxanthin concentrations was lower, it seems that the accumulation and elimination in skin is slower, compared to
other tissues. Potential adverse side effects such as lesions in the kidneys of three animals and a slight (n.s.) change
in the leucogram were also noted. Furthermore, astaxanthin accumulated in the eyes in the same magnitude as it is
known for canthaxanthin in the eyes of rats.
Astaxanthin, a naturally occurring carotenoid pigment, is a powerful biological antioxidant. Astaxanthin exhibits strong
free radical scavenging activity and protects against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage of LDL-cholesterol, cell
membranes, cells, and tissues. Consequently, astaxanthin has important applications in the Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics,
Food and Feed industries.
For last 2 decades. more than 300 articles and patents have been published regarding astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a
small Lipid soluble molecule that can cross the blood brain and retina barriers easily. Because of its antioxidant
activities and blood brain/retina permeability, astaxanthin was found to have benefits on various health conditions
including inflammation, diabetics, certain cardiovascular, vision and CNS conditions.
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring molecule and the most abundant carotenoid in the marine world. Astaxanthin can be
found in many of seafood such as salmon, trout, seabream and shrimps. Astaxanthin cannot be synthesized by animals
and must be provided in the diet. The main or richest commercial source for natural astaxanthin is Haematococcus
pluvialis microalgae. Most manufacturers have the advanced biotechnology process to cultivate large amount of
enriched algae cells without the disadvantages of open pond algae systems such as problems associated with
contaminations and salinity. In addition, the Haematococcus microalgae is cultivated in ideal environmental conditions
using the natural sun light as the energy source all year round.
Review / Benefits / Side Effects / Dosage / Cancer / Reference
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