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NI Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are potent antioxidants in a membrane model. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992 Sep;
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Cancer. 1993;19(3):269-80.  Oshima S et al, Inhibitory effect of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on photosensitized
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Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring carotenoid astaxanthin.
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occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Cancer Res. 1995 Sep 15;55(18):4059-64.  O'Connor I
and O'Brien N Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured
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dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in mice in vivo. Anticancer Res. 1999 May-Jun;19(3A):1849-53.
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in experimental animals. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jan;28(1):47-52.  Kavitha K, et al, Astaxanthin inhibits NF-κB and
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SIDE EFFECTS  Stewart JS et al, Safety assessment of astaxanthin-rich microalgae biomass: Acute and
subchronic toxicity studies in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Sep;46(9):3030-6  Spiller GA et al, Safety of an
astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract: a randomized clinical trial. J Med Food. 2003 Spring;6(1):51-
6.  Miyawaki H, et al, Effects of astaxanthin on human blood rheology. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008 Sep;43(2):69-74.
 Petri D et al, Tissue distribution of astaxanthin in rats following exposure to graded levels in the feed.Comp
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Astaxanthin, a naturally occurring carotenoid pigment, is a powerful biological antioxidant. Astaxanthin exhibits strong
free radical scavenging activity and protects against lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage of LDL-cholesterol, cell
membranes, cells, and tissues. Consequently, astaxanthin has important applications in the Nutraceuticals, Cosmetics,
Food and Feed industries.
For last 2 decades. more than 300 articles and patents have been published regarding astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is a
small Lipid soluble molecule that can cross the blood brain and retina barriers easily. Because of its antioxidant
activities and blood brain/retina permeability, astaxanthin was found to have benefits on various health conditions
including inflammation, diabetics, certain cardiovascular, vision and CNS conditions.
Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring molecule and the most abundant carotenoid in the marine world. Astaxanthin can be
found in many of seafood such as salmon, trout, seabream and shrimps. Astaxanthin cannot be synthesized by animals
and must be provided in the diet. The main or richest commercial source for natural astaxanthin is Haematococcus
pluvialis microalgae. Most manufacturers have the advanced biotechnology process to cultivate large amount of
enriched algae cells without the disadvantages of open pond algae systems such as problems associated with
contaminations and salinity. In addition, the Haematococcus microalgae is cultivated in ideal environmental conditions
using the natural sun light as the energy source all year round.
Review / Benefits / Side Effects / Dosage / Cancer / Reference