conjugated linoleic acid side effects, conjugated linoleic acid benefits
conjugated linoleic acid weight loss, dosage, supplements, pills, cla and bodybuilding
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has rapidly become one of the most talked about weight loss products
since its introduction to the public in the late 90s.
[1] Gaullier JM et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight
humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:1118?25.][2]  Riserus U et al Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid
supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr
2004;80:279?83] [3] Ohashi A et al, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Conjugated linoleic acid deteriorates insulin
resistance in obese/diabetic mice in association with decreased production of adiponectin and leptin. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2004 Dec;50(6):416-21 [4]Moloney F, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation, insulin
sensitivity, and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:887-95][5]
Eyjolfson V, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid improves insulin sensitivity in young, sedentary humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc
2004;36:814?20 [6] Clement L et al, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Biologie Appliquee a la Nutrition et a l'Alimentation,
France, J Lipid Res. 2002 Sep;43(9):1400-9.][7] Poirier H et al, University of Burgundy, France, Hyperinsulinaemia
triggered by dietary conjugated linoleic acid is associated with a decrease in leptin and adiponectin plasma levels and
pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia in the mouse. Diabetologia. 2005 May 3; 2005.[8] Kim HK et  al, Korea Food Research
Institute, Dietary conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid peroxidation by increasing oxidative stability in rats. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Feb;51(1):8-15. [9] Mitchell PL et al, Dalhousie University, Canada, Effect of conjugated linoleic
acid CLA isomers on lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in the Syrian Golden hamster. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 23
2005. [10] Cesano A et al. Opposite effects of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid on human prostatic cancer in
SCID mice. Anticancer Res 1998;18:1429-34. [11] Thompson H et al. Morphological and biochemical status of the
mammary gland as influenced by conjugated linoleic acid: implication for a reduction in mammary cancer risk. Cancer
Res 1997;57:5067-72.[12] Ip C. Review of the effects of trans fatty acids, oleic acid, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and
conjugated linoleic acid on mammary carcinogenesis in animals. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66(suppl):1523S-29S [review].
[13] Parodi PW. Cows? milk fat components as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nutr 1997;127:1055-60 [review].[14]
Miglietta A University of Torino, Italy, Conjugated linoleic acid induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells
through ERK/MAPK signalling and mitochondrial pathway. Cancer Lett. 2005 May 7; 2005][15] Lim DY et al, Hallym
University. Korea, Inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation by the dietary compound conjugated linoleic acid is
mediated by the CDK inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1). J Cell Physiol. 2005 May 5; 2005 [15] Pal S et al, Curtin University of
Technology, Australia, Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses the secretion of atherogenic lipoproteins from human
HepG2 liver cells. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(3):269-74. [16] Nicolosi RJ, et al. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid
reduces plasma lipoproteins and early aortic atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Artery 1997;22:266-77.
[17] Lee KN, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis 1994;108:19-25. [15] Lai C et
al, China Agricultural University, Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on performance and immune
function of weaned pigs. Arch Anim Nutr. 2005 Feb;59(1):41-51. [16] Houseknecht KL et al. Dietary conjugated linoleic
acid normalizes impaired glucose tolerance in the Zucker diabetic fatty fa/fa rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun
1998;244:678-82] [17]Zheng HC et al, Zhejiang University, China, Effects of dietary sources of vegetable oils on
performance of high-yielding lactating cows and conjugated linoleic acids in milk. J Dairy Sci. 2005
Jun;88(6):2037-42.[17] Thom E, Wadstein J, Gudmundsen O. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat in healthy
exercising humans. J Int Med Res 2001;29:392-6] [18] Riserus U, Berglund L, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomised
controlled trial. Int J Obes 2001;25:1129-35][S1] Norris LE, Collene AL, Asp ML, Hsu JC, Liu LF, Richardson JR, Li D, Bell
D, Osei  K, Jackson RD, Belury MA. Comparison of dietary conjugated linoleic acid with safflower oil on body composition
in obese postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 17.
Conjugated Linoleic acid (CLA) Review
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 cis-9,
cis-12). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is popular in health supplement industry as it may have benefits of
weight loss and increasing muscle mass (bodybuilding). A few studies also suggest that conjugated linoleic
acid (CLA) may also have benefits of lowering the risk of atherosclerosis and cancers for some people.

Sources of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) - Food and Supplements.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is available in dairy products, beef, poultry, eggs, and corn oil. Bacteria that live
in the intestine of humans can also convert linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The source for some
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are safflower oil. Most brands of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on
the market today contain 70% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); with no trans-fats present.

Conjugated Linoliec Acid (CLA) Benefits

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Benefits - Atherosclerosis and Cholesterol
A study has shown the anti-atheroslerotic and antioxidant activities of Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) via
increasing oxidative stability in plasma and hepatic membrane in the vitamin E-deficient rats [8]  Individual
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers was shown to reduce the development of atherosclerotic lesion in
hamsters.  [9] In a cell culture, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces apoB100 production and secretion
compared to saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, possibly by limiting the availability of free cholesterol
(required for apoB100 production). A reduction in apoB100 production in the body would decrease the levels
of VLDL and atherogenic LDL and thus reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Some other
studies in animals also showed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.  

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Benefits - Cancers
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid CLA was shown to inhibit colon tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo via
the CDK inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1). [15] And, various basic research studies have demonstrated  that
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) might reduce the risk of several types of cancers including breast, prostate,
colorectal, lung, skin, and stomach. [10-13] Scientists have also investigated on how conjugated linoleic acid
(CLA) inhibited cancer cell growth extensively. Conjugated linoleic acid CLA may trigger apoptosis in the
estrogen unresponsive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line via mechanisms involving above all the
mitochondrial pathway. [14]

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Benefits - Immune Function
Conjugated linoleic acid CLA improved performance, lymphocyte proliferation, and increased the CD8+
lymphocyte population, while reduced the production of PGE2 and interleukin-lbeta (IL- 1beta).
Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid; CLA enhanced lymphocyte proliferation function, possibly by
regulating the PGE2 production, and improved growth performance of pigs. [15]

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Benefits - Diabetes / Glucose Tolerance
Animal research suggests an effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on improving glucose
tolerance. [16]

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Benefits - Weight Loss
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may benefit people who want weight loss. Some studies showed that conjugated
linoleic acid (CLA) is effective on reduction of body fat. In one study, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) significantly
reduced percent body fat, but did not significantly reduce body weight [17] In another study, supplementation
with dosage of 4.2 grams of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); per day for four weeks produced a reduction in
waist size but not weight loss. [18]

Safflower oil is a common source for conjugated linolieic acid (CLA), but, the effects of taking conjugated
linolieic acid (CLA) and safflower oil on body mass index (BMI), total and trunk adipose mass, as well as the
lean meat (tissue) can be very different. Norris LE and co-researchers compared the effects of 2 dietary oils,
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower oil (SAF), on body weight and composition in obese
postmenopausal women with type-2 diabetes in a 36-week study. They found that supplementation with
conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.0022) and total adipose mass (P =
0.0187) without altering lean mass. The effect of CLA in lowering BMI was detected during the last 8 wk of each
16-wk diet period. In contrast, safflower oil had no effect on BMI or total adipose mass but reduced trunk
adipose mass and increased lean mass. Safflower oil also significantly lowered fasting glucose and increased
adiponectin.  [S1]

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Benefits - CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID IN MILK
Supplementation of vegetable oils tended to improve milk production of lactating cows, and the conjugated
linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk fat was significantly increased. Soybean oil seemed to be the optimal source
to increase conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production. [17]

The side effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can be very serious for overweight people, especially when it
is at high doses. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may increase the risk for heart disease. In a study, overweight
volunteers who took dosage of 4.5 grams of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) daily for one year had an increase
in their blood levels of lipoprotein(a). Lipoprotein(a) is a risk factor for heart disease. [1]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may also reduce the insulin sensitivity for overweight men. A reduction in insulin
sensitivity was also observed in a study of overweight men without diabetes after treatment with 3 grams of
conjugated linoleic acid CLA daily for three months. [2]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding was also found to promote insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice by
at least inverse regulation of leptin and adiponectin, and  TNFalpha, adipocytokines known to either ameliorate
or deteriorate insulin sensitivity, respectively. [3] In another study of people with type 2 diabetes,
supplementing with dosage of 3 grams of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) daily for eight weeks significantly
increased blood glucose  levels by 6.3% and decreased insulin sensitivity. [4] On the other hand, researchers
also found that 4 grams of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) daily for eight weeks improved insulin sensitivity of
young men. [5]

Another potential serious side effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is the fatty liver. t10,c12-CLA-induced
hyperinsulinemia may trigger liver steatosis (fatty liver), by inducing both fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis. [6]
Conjugated linoleic acid CLA supplementation induces a profound reduction of leptin, adiponectin and then
excessive secretion of insulin and hepativc lipid content in a study of mouse. These observations cast doubt
on the safety of dietary supplements containing CLA. [7]

Since the side effects of conjugated linoleic acid can be very serious, users must consult with their medical
doctors before taking the supplements.
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