Calcium and Bone Health
A recent news report shows that deficiency of vitamin D may be putting the elderly at higher risk
for the osteoporosis and  fractures.[2] Common sources of vitamin D are egg yolks, liver and
saltfish; egg yolks and livers are also sources of cholesterol. Low vitamin D is common. Low
vitamin D has an impact on blood glucose metabolism and diabetes.In a study of 126 healthy
glucose-tolerant subjects, researchers found----> lower the vitamin D concentration, the longer
it took for blood glucose levels to decline. And, the subjects with low levels of vitamin D were
more likely to exhibit components of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, high blood pressure
and insulin resistance.


Transmission of HIV Through Bone Transplantation
In February 1988, a bone transplant recipient was diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS) after being found positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
and developing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). The recipient had no known risk for HIV
infection other than the bone grafting procedure, and the bone donor was subsequently found
to have been infected with HIV. [4]

Cadmium occurs in the earth’s crust at a concentration of 0.1–0.5 ppm and is commonly
associated with zinc, lead, and copper ores. In the United States, the largest source of cadmium
exposure for nonsmoking adults and children is through dietary intake. In general, leafy
vegetables such as lettuce and spinach and staples such as potatoes and grains contain
relatively high values of cadmium. Peanuts, soybeans, and sunflower seeds have naturally high
levels of cadmium. People who regularly consume shellfish and organ meats (liver and kidney)
have increased cadmium exposure. In animals, cadmium has been shown to be a
developmental toxin by the inhalation, oral, and parenteral routes. Decreased fetal weight,
skeletal malformations, and delayed ossification are produced by relatively high maternal doses
(1–20 mg/kg/day) due to placental toxicity, interference with fetal metabolism, and damage to
the maternal liver. [5]

Source of information: [1] Calcium and Bone Health CDC. gov [2] Vitamin D Deficiency Called
Major Health Risk, Rob Stein, Washington Post, May 21, 2004. [3] Low Vitamin D Linked to
Insulin Resistance, by David Douglas, Reuters, June 29, 2004. [4] Epidemiologic Notes and
Reports Transmission of HIV Through Bone Transplantation: Case Report and Public Health
Recommendations [5] Cadmium
Bones play many roles in the body. They provide structure, protect organs, anchor muscles,
and store calcium. Adequate calcium consumption and weight bearing physical activity build
strong bones, optimizes bone mass, and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life.

Peak Bone Mass

Peak bone mass refers to the genetic potential for bone density. By the age of 20, the
average woman has acquired most of her skeletal mass. A large decline in bone mass occurs
in older adults, increasing the risk of osteoporosis. For women this occurs around the time of

It is important for young girls to reach their peak bone mass in order to maintain bone health
throughout life. A person with high bone mass as a young adult will be more likely to have a
higher bone mass later in life. Inadequate calcium consumption and physical activity early on
could result in a failure to achieve peak bone mass in adulthood.


Osteoporosis or "porous bone" is a disease of the skeletal system characterized by low bone
mass and deterioration of bone tissue. Osteoporosis leads to an increase risk of bone
fractures typically in the wrist, hip, and spine. Untreated osteoporosis may cause permanent
disability or even death. According to National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF), women are
four times more likely than men to have the disease. It is estimated that about 44 million
Americans are associated with low bone mass.

Female, White/Caucasian, post menopausal women, older adults, people small in body size,
people eating a diet low in calcium and people who are physically inactive are at higher risk to
develop osteoporosis.

Calcium is a mineral needed by the body for healthy bones, teeth, and proper function of the
heart, muscles, and nerves.  Sources of calcium include dairy products, dark green leafy
vegetables, calcium fortifed foods and nuts.

Weight-bearing physical activities cause muscles and bones to work against gravity. Regular
physical activity has been associated with many positive health benefits including strong
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