whey protein review, whey protein side effects, whey protein benefits
whey protein weight loss, whey dangers   Zhion@Zhion.com   November 24, 2011
Whey Protein Benefits
The biological components of whey, including lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide,
and immunoglobulins, demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. Whey may have multiple biological
benefits as it has shown to have antioxidative, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and
chelating activities. Whey's primary mechanism is probably via an intracellular conversion of the amino acid cysteine
to glutathione, a potent intracellular antioxidant. [1].

Whey protein may benefit people suffered from asthma. In rural regions of Europe, a comprehensive questionnaire
about farm milk consumption and other farm-related exposures was completed by parents of 8334 school-aged
children, and 7606 of them provided serum samples to assess specific IgE levels. In 800 cow's milk samples collected
at the participants' homes, viable bacterial counts, whey protein levels, and total fat content were analyzed. Reported
raw milk consumption was inversely associated to asthma, atopy, and hay fever. [A2]

Whey protein may benefit people at risk of colitis. In a study, colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of a
mixture of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)/absolute ethanol in male Wistar rats  Animals were divided into
5 groups including sham (normal group), control (vehicle-treated), positive control (dexamethasone dosage 1
mg/kg/day, orally), prevention (10(8) cfu whey-cultured Lactobacillus caseii/day, orally, 14 days before induction of
colitis), and treatment (10(8) cfu whey-cultured Lactobacillus casei/day, orally, 14 days after induction of colitis). After
14-days treatment, researchers found an apparent improvement in colon histopathology scores, TNF-α,
myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxidation in the treatment group, whereas prevention group did not demonstrate
positive efficacy in prevention of colonic damage. [A1]

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or the MHN-02 diet for 14 days and injected with 2 mL/kg of
carbon tetrachloride. Survival of rats was monitored from day 0 to day 3. The survival rates of rats receiving the MHN-
02 diet and the control diet were 90% and 55%, respectively. In the MHN-02 diet group, levels of serum liver enzymes
and serum cytokines were significantly lower than in the control group. Pathological lesions were significantly larger in
the control group. MHN-02 diet contains abundant antioxidants and whey peptide. [A4] Thus, whey protein may
benefit people at risk of hepatitis.

Whey proteins such as lactoferrin are being tested as anticancer agents. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that
has been reported to inhibit several types of cancer. In a test-tube study, the human breast cancer HS578T and
T47D cells were either untreated or treated with lactoferrin concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 125 μM. Lactoferrin
decreased the cell viability of HS578T and T47D by 47 and 54%, respectively, and increased apoptosis about 2-fold
for both cell lines. Proliferation rates decreased by 40.3 and 63.9% for HS578T and T47D, respectively. [A3] Thus, it
is believed that whey proteins may offer benefits to people at risk of certain types of cancers.

Crohn's Disease
The mechanism of action of elemental diet in Crohn's disease treatment, is unknown. Alteration of bacterial flora, low
antigenicity, low fat content and improvement of nutritional status are postulated to play a role in the anti-inflammatory
effect of elemental diet. In an study, intermittent defined formula diet (containing whey) improved growth failure and
significantly decrease disease activity in children with Crohn's disease. [B2]

Studies of spontaneously hypertensive rats and human subjects showed that whey can significantly reduce blood
pressure- both systolic and diastolic pressures. [2] Thus, whey protein potentially benefits people at risk of high blood

A study shows whey protein supplementation enhanced cytoskeletal rearrangement and chemotaxis in B and T cells,
and subsequently improving the immune response in diabetic mice. Thus, whey protein may benefit people with weak
immune system. [B1]

Muscle Builder
Whey protein may benefit people at sport. Studies with stable isotope methodology demonstrated the ability of whey
proteins or similar compositions promoted whole body and muscle protein synthesis. [3] Researchers also found whey
protein isolate supplementation attenuated the impairment in isometric and isokinetic muscle forces during recovery
from exercise-induced muscle injury. [6]

Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to improving outcome and quality of life in cancer patients. Stimulating muscle
protein synthesis is the metabolic basis for maintaining muscle mass, but in cancer patients normal dietary intake has
minimal effects on muscle protein synthesis. Adding leucine to high protein supplements stimulates muscle protein
synthesis in healthy older subjects. A study also shows cancer patients received a medical food containing 40 g
protein, based on casein and whey protein and enriched with 10% free leucine and other specific components,
increased muscle protein "fractional rate of muscle protein synthesis" from 0.073 to 0.097. [A6]

Wound Healing
Postcaesarean treatment with whey peptides promoted significant wound healing in the skin and uterus incision in an
animal study. [7] Whey protein may benefit people with open wound, but more studies are needed to support this

Blood Sugar Level
A study suggested that whey may curb effect of carbs on blood sugar. This may be a good news for people suffered
from diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas either does not produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels at
healthy levels or the body has become resistant to insulin. A high-carbohydrate meal can cause dangerous spikes in
the blood sugar of people suffered from diabetes. In the study, whey supplementation along with a high-carbohydrate
meal prevented the dramatic spikes in blood sugar that normally occur in people with type 2 diabetes. Researchers
found that insulin production was higher after the whey-supplemented meals and a reduction of raised blood sugar
levels after lunch with whey supplementation. [4.5] It would be good if whey protein can benefit people suffered from

Whey protein benefits may be many, but most studies are done in animals or labs, clinical studies are needed to
support the health claims.

Whey Protein Side Effects
In general, it is not likely to cause significant side effects in most people. However, certain people may be at a high
risk for side effects, especially at higher doses. High doses of whey protein may lead to some side effects such as
increased bowel movements, nausea, thirst, bloating, cramps, reduced appetite, fatigue, and headache. Whey protein
is derived from milk, people with lactose intolerance may experience additional side effects, while some people may
develop allergic reactions such as rash, itching, lips swelling, diarrhea, vomiting etc. A few websites say "whey protein
may also lead to side effects such as kidney function alternation, liver damage and osteoporosis." They suggest not
ingesting more than 30 g of whey protein at one time. Further, loss of calcium is linked to high-protein diets, thus,
whey consumer may need to consume more calcium products. [X]

Whey protein dosage
Daily dosages of 15-50 g have been suggested. But, dosages higher than 30 g likely cause side effects.
[1] Marshall K, Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Jun;9(2):136-56. [2] FitzGerald RJ, Hypotensive peptides
from milk proteins. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):980S-8S.] [3] Ha E et al, Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential
amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review). J Nutr Biochem. 2003 May;14(5):251-8.] [4] Frid, A.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 1, 2005; vol 82: pp 69-75. [5] Whey supplement helpful for diabetics, Reuters Health, Wed Jul
27, 2005 [6] Cooke MB, Rybalka E, Stathis CG, Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-
induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Sep 22;7(1):30. [7] Wang J, Zhao M, Liang R, Zhang Z, Zhao
H, Zhang J, Li T, Li Y. Whey peptides improve wound healing following caesarean section in rats. Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug 9:1-7. [X] http:
//www.maxmusclegrowth.com/whey-protein-side-effects-beware!.php, http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-
833-WHEY%20PROTEIN.aspx?activeIngredientId=833&activeIngredientName=WHEY%20PROTEIN http://weight-loss.emedtv.
com/whey-protein/whey-protein-side-effects.html[A1] Ghasemi-Niri SF, Abdolghaffari AH, Fallah-Benakohal S, Hosseinpour-Feizi M,
Mahdaviani P, Jamalifar H, Baeeri M, Dehghan G, Abdollahi M. On the benefit of whey-cultured Lactobacillus casei in murine colitis. J
Physiol Pharmacol.
2011 Jun;62(3):341-6.  Loss G, Apprich S, Waser M, Kneifel W, Genuneit J, Büchele G, Weber J, Sozanska B,
Danielewicz H, Horak E, van Neerven RJ, Heederik D, Lorenzen PC, von Mutius E, Braun-Fahrländer C; GABRIELA study group. The
protective effect of farm milk consumption on childhood asthma and atopy: The GABRIELA study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Aug 27.
[A3] Duarte DC, Nicolau A, Teixeira JA, Rodrigues LR.  The effect of bovine milk lactoferrin on human breast cancer cell lines.  J Dairy Sci.
2011 Jan;94(1):66-76. [A4] Takayanagi T, Sasaki H, Kawashima A, Mizuochi Y, Hirate H, Sugiura T, Azami T, Asai K, Sobue K. A new
enteral diet, MHN-02, which contains abundant antioxidants and whey peptide, protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatitis.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011 Jul;35(4):516-22. [A6] Deutz NE, Safar A, Schutzler S, Memelink R, Ferrando A, Spencer H, van
Helvoort A, Wolfe RR. Muscle protein synthesis in cancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medical food. Clin Nutr.
2011 Jun 15. [B1] Badr G, Effects of undenatured whey protein supplementation on CXCL12- and CCL21-mediated B and T cell
chemotaxis in diabetic mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Nov 9;10(1):203. [B2] Polk DB, et al, Improved growth and disease activity after
intermittent administration of a defined formula diet in children with Crohn's disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992 Nov-Dec;16(6):
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Whey Protein Review
Whey is not a herb, it is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. Whey is a by-product of cheese production such as cottage
cheese. (Wikipedia, September 06, 2011). The biological components of whey include lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin,
glycomacropeptide, and immunoglobulins. Whey protein (derived from whey) is often sold as a nutritional supplement.

Whey Isolates
Whey protein isolates and peptides have been marketed as agents for building muscle. GNC Pro Performance 100% Whey Protein even contains
chocolate for good taste. GNC explains whey protein offers the benefits of supplying high nutritional value and branched chain amino acids to
athletes in its website (September 06, 2011). These branched chain amino acids are essential amino acids, which are part of muscle protein. While,
other retails market whey protein powder as an agent for faster muscle recovery and post workout restoration. They also claim that whey protein
has a benefit on immune system and of weight loss.