POTATO HEALTH BENEFITS, NUTRITION VALUES July 31 2013
_________________________________________________________________________________________ POTATO HEALTH BENEFITS
ANTI-OXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES The antioxidative activities of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato have been demonstrated. 
The correlation of potato intake and cancer occurrence In a study of 490,000 middle-aged Americans, researchers found that dietary patterns characterized by a low frequency of meat and potato consumption and frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and fat-reduced foods are consistent with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer. 
A study showed that the cytotoxic activity of potato aspartic proteases induced apoptosis on Jurkat T cells after a short time of incubation in a dose-dependent manner.  Another study showed the anti-cancer activities of wild potato extracts on the human HT-29 colon and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines in vitro  The cytotoxic activities of potato extract/ anthocyanin fractions in cancer cells were probably due to activation of caspase-independent apoptosis. [5 Potato extracts were also found to inhibit the proliferation of human mammalian cancer (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner.  Thus, certain potato ingredients or preparations may benefit people at risk of cancers.
CHOLESTEROL Potato was demonstrated to lower serum cholesterol.  In a particular study, feeding rats a potato-enriched diet for 3 weeks led to a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in plasma and cholesterol level in liver. Antioxidant status was also improved by potato consumption. [B5] Intake of potato may not raise the cholesterol but it is unclear if it benefits people at risk of diabetes and high triglyceride. Please, review the section of potato side effects. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Potato Side Effects
The average glycemic index for a regular serving of baked russet potato is 111, and that for a boiled white potato is 82. [B1] Glycemic index offers information about how foods affect blood sugar and insulin. The lower a food's glycemic index, the less it affects blood sugar and insulin levels. People at risk of diabetes, high triglycerides are often suggested to avoid high glycemic index food. A study of 4774 subjects demonstrates a strong association between potato consumption and diabetes mellitus, high fasting blood sugar level and low serum high density lipoprotein level. [B2] Another study of 84,555 women also suggests that potato and French fry consumption were both positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age and dietary and nondietary factors. The study also found a more pronounced association between potato consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in obese women. [B3]
A study shows that a pattern of high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa, and with increased serum triglyceride levels. [B4]
In addition to putting people at risk of diabetes, obesity, etc., eating potato may have some other side effects. Potato-lovers should discuss with their medical doctors on the side effects of potatoes. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ REFERENCE
A1 Pandey M et al, Diet and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Aug;11(4):365-8. 2. Antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato, Ipomoera batatas cultivar Ayamurasaki. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 May;69(5):979-88. 3. Cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean, potato and rice proteins depend on their low methionine contents in rats fed a cholesterol-free purified diet. J Nutr. 1997 Mar;127(3):470-7. 4. Lund ED Cholesterol binding capacity of fiber from tropical fruits and vegetables. Lipids. 1984 Feb;19(2):85-90.
Reference for the section on "Does potato benefit people at risk of cancer?"  Mendieta JR, Fimognari C, Daleo GR, Hrelia P, Guevara MG. Cytotoxic effect of potato aspartic proteases (StAPs) on Jurkat T cells. Fitoterapia. 2009 Oct 13.  Nzaramba MN, Reddivari L, Bamberg JB, Miller JC. Antiproliferative activity and cytotoxicity of Solanum jamesii tuber extracts on human colon and prostate cancer cells in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8308-15.  Flood A, Rastogi T, Wirfält E, Mitrou PN, Reedy J, Subar AF, Kipnis V, Mouw T, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann M, Schatzkin A. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):176-84.  Leo L, Leone A, Longo C, Lombardi DA, Raimo F, Zacheo G. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in "early potatoes". J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 11;56(11):4154-63. Epub 2008 May 14.  Reddivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, Miller JC Jr. Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Oct;28(10):2227-35. Epub 2007 May 23.  Huang GJ, Sheu MJ, Chen HJ, Chang YS, Lin YH. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cells by trypsin inhibitor from sweet potato storage roots. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Apr 4;55(7):2548-53. Epub 2007 Mar 1.  Rabah IO, Hou DX, Komine S, Fujii M. Potential chemopreventive properties of extract from baked sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. Cv. Koganesengan). J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Nov 17;52(23):7152-7.
[B1] Harvard Health Publications, online, July 2013. [B2] Khosravi-Boroujeni H, et al, Potato consumption and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Iranian population. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Dec;63(8):913-20 [B3] Halton TL et al, Potato and french fry consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):284-90. [B4] DiBello JR et al, Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans. J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1933-43 [B5] Robert L et al, Entire potato consumption improves lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed rat. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Aug;45(5):267-74.
In 18th century, potatoes were introduced to North America by Irish immigrants, but, their origin actually is South America. Potatoes were first cultivated in the Andes Mountains, today, many kinds of potatoes are seen in markets. The most popular ones are the russet, round white, and the red potato. Potatoes are tough and durable, store well, and have impressive nutrition values. It is a rich source of fiber, potassium and vitamin C. Like other fruits and vegetables, potatoes are a low calorie food and are free of fat, cholesterol, and sodium. However, the leaves and stems of a potato plant are poisonous and may cause illness when ingested.
Potatoes are grown across the United States and are available year round. Store potatoes in a cool, dry place. Sunlight can cause the skin to turn green; if this occurs the skin must then be peeled off before consuming. Most of the nutrients are contained right below the skin, so avoid peeling when possible. Besides fresh potatoes, other forms are often available as well, including refrigerated pre-cut fresh potatoes, frozen potatoes, canned potatoes and dehydrated potatoes When choosing potatoes, be sure they are firm, smooth, and the color they are supposed to be. Softness, a green tinge, or wrinkly skin may indicate a potato that is past its prime.
Potatoes should be thoroughly washed with clean tap water and scrubbed lightly before preparation. Any sprouts or eyes growing from the potato should be cut out. The skin can be removed or left on depending on use. Common methods of preparation include boiling, baking, microwaving, mashing, frying and grilling. Consuming baked and grilled potatoes with the skin left on provides the most nutrients.
Potato has several varieties, the popular ones are Russet (Round White), Long Whit (Fingerling), Red Skinne (New) and Blue / Purple Skinned (Yellow Flesh). ________________________________________________________________________________________