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Horny goat
Background Information

Epimedium, also known as Rowdy Lamb Herb, Barrenwort, Bishop's Hat, Fairy Wings, Horny Goat
Weed, or Yin Yang Huo (Chinese: 淫羊藿) is a genus of about 60 or more species of herbaceous
flowering plants in the family Berberidaceae.. The large majority are endemic to southern China.
Many are believed to be aphrodisiacs; an aphrodisiac is a substance that increases sexual desire.
Horny Goat Weed is sold as a health supplement; usually in raw herb, tablet, or capsule form and
sometimes blended with other supplements; The "active ingredient" in Epimedium is icariin, a PDE-5

US Patent Application 20090092687
This application suggests methods and compositions for maintaining a state of sexual wellness in a
healthy human by providing a dietary supplement comprising one or more sexual steroid
prohormones; wherein said sexual nutrient is yohimbe, maca, Tribulus terrestris, ginseng, horny
goat weed or damiana.

US Patent Application 20100104624
This application suggests a composition for treating side-effects of vasodilation comprising a
vasodilator and an active agent that alleviates a side-effect of the vasodilator. The composition
wherein the vasodilator comprises an adenosine agonist, an alpha blocker, a nitrate, a PDE-5
inhibitor, or combinations thereof. The PDE-5 inhibitor comprises avanafil, sildenafil, tadalafil,
udenafil, vardenafil, horny goat weed,  combinations, salts, or derivatives thereof.

US Patent 6,340,474
Horny Goat Weed lowers the blood pressure by dilating the blood vessels of the body. Although
human growth hormone by itself enhances prosexual characteristics in mammals, the addition of
Muira Puama extract and Horny Goat Weed to the combination of Mucuna Pruriens and Tribulus L.
Terrestris results in a further increase of such prosexual characteristics.

J Sex Med. 2010 Apr;7(4 Pt 1):1518-28. Epub 2010 Feb 5.
Icariin may have neurotrophic effects. [2]

Int J Impot Res. 2009 Sep-Oct;21(5):315-20. Epub 2009 Jun 4.
A new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax
quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat
weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts for enhancing erectile function in
male rats. [1]

Side Effects (adapted from other websites)
There is no or limited data of its side effect available from scientific literature, but it doesn't mean
that it has no side effects. Information over the internet about its side effects include thirst, vomiting,
dizziness, rapid heart beat, restlessness, and insomnia. I believe its side effects, especially
overdose, could be very serious, as it has similar function as these medications: avanafil, sildenafil,
tadalafil, udenafil, vardenafil

[1] Qinna N, Taha H, Matalka KZ, Badwan AA. A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing
erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals. Int J Impot Res. 2009 Sep-Oct;21(5):315-
20. Epub 2009 Jun 4.