Siberian Ginseng Benefits
Siberian Ginseng side effects, Siberian Ginseng benefits
The use of this popular herb can be traced back over 2,000 years in ancient Chinese medical texts, where
it is indicated for the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. Although it is a cousin of the Panax ginseng
family (Korean, Chinese and American) it’s considered distinctly different. The term panax is derived from
the Greek words pan (all) and akos (cure), which means “cure-all”. In addition to its adaptogenic properties,
which seem to stem from its ability to regulate the activity of the adrenal cortex in response to stress,
Eleuthero has some unique benefits. It stimulates the immune system, especially during times of strenuous
physical exertion and stress, and seems especially beneficial for supporting a healthy mood and mental
alertness. Eleuthero is also extremely beneficial as a training aid for athletes.

Eleutherosides are the active components in Eleuthero.

Siberian ginseng may benefit people with depression, fatigue or under stress. It also enhances immuno-
functions and neuron activities. [1]

Root extracts of Siberian Ginseng, Odaesan, Korea (ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractionations) revealed
strong antioxidant against scavenging on DPPH free radicals. In addition, ethyl acetate fractionation
exhibited high anti-lipid peroxidative activities. They were also active in against seven human cancer cell
lines. [9]

Siberian Ginseng root has been used as a tonic and adaptogen to strengthen qi in traditional Korean
medicine. The neuroprotective effects of water extracts of Siberian Ginseng were investigated in transient
middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, 90 min occlusion, 24 h reperfusion) of Sprague-Dawley rats. The
infarct volume was significantly reduced by 36.6% after the peritoneal injection of Siberian Ginseng extracts
(100 mg [sol ]kg) compared with the control. In the immunohistochemical study, Siberian Ginseng extracts
markedly inhibited both cyclooxygenase-2 and OX-42 expressions in the penumbral region at 24 h after
MCAo. These results suggest that Eleuthero may have beneficial effect of neuro-protection by inhibiting
inflammation and microglial activation in brain ischaemia. [2]

The Siberian Ginseng cortex has been used extensively in Russia, China, Korea and Japan as an
adaptogen. Its benefits include improvement of non-specific body resistance to stress and fatigue.
Researchers compared the effects of the water extracts (A, B, C, D and E) of five Siberian Ginseng on the
swimming time, NK activity and blood corticosterone level using forced swimming stressed mice. Among five
kinds, C, D and E extracts significantly prolonged the swimming time. C and D extracts inhibited the
reduction of NK activity and the corticosterone elevation induced by forced swimming. The contents of
eleutheroside E, isoflaxidin and eleutherosides B plus E were in the order C > D > E > B > A and C > E > D
> A > B extracts, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that eleutheroside E may be contributed to the anti-
fatigue action, the recovery of the reduction of NK activity and the inhibition of corticosterone elevation
induced by swimming stress. [3]

However, another study conducted by researchers from University of Iowa was not able to demonstrate the
overall anti-fatigue effects of Siberian Ginseng on subjects compared to the control group. [7]

The inconsistent results of various studies indicate the impacts of experimental design, dosage forms and
the nature of exercise and stress.

Preparations of Siberian Ginseng used in a study were as follows; (i) 70% ethanol extract (ii) water extract
(iii) ethanol-soluble part of the water extract (iv) polysaccharide obtained as an 80% ethanol insoluble of
the water extract. Preparations were given by intraperitoneal (300 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) or oral (300 mg/kg)
injection at 12 hr and 1 hr before a D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide injection. The intraperitoneal
injection of water extract and polysaccharide significantly lowered serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-
alpha, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, improved the histologic changes in liver, inhibited
hepatocyte apoptosis confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-
labeling method and DNA fragmentation assay, and suppressed the lethality induced by D-
galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide. The oral administration of water extract and polysaccharide also
reduced serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels. In
contrast 70% ethanol extract and ethanol-soluble part of the water extract had no protective effect when
treated intraperitoneally or orally. These results indicate Siberian Ginseng stems attenuate fulminant
hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide in mice and the protective effect is due to
water-soluble polysaccharides in Siberian Ginseng stems. [4]

Russian scientist administrated Siberian Ginseng to albino rats (18-20-month age) daily for 30 days They
found that the animal had a better anti-coagulating system or a better protection from thrombogeneration
induced with i.v. administration of tissue thromboplastine. The effect of the adaptogen was more obvious
after 60-day treatment. [6]

Acute administration of a liquid Siberian Ginseng extract significantly improves short-term memory in
healthy humans. The expression of this action depends on the daytime and psychophysiological
peculiarities of the volunteers. Administration of the preparation also improved retinal sensitivity. This effect
was more pronounced in humans with weak type of high nervous activity in evening hours. [8]

Scientist also studied the influence of Siberian Ginseng on cellular and humoral immune response in animal
models (Balb/c mice and F1 crossbreeds Balb/cxC3H). The study has shown that Siberian Ginseng has
immunomodulatory properties. It enhanced the cellular response of the mouse immunological system
(chemokinetic activity of mice spleen cells, GvH reaction). They also observed a stimulatory effect of
Siberian Ginseng on the humoral response (antibody production). [8]

In another study, researchers administrated Siberian Ginseng preparations to mice before illness, during
illness and a combination of both. They found an increase of the level of immunoglobulins comprised in the
mice's blood serum [10]

Siberian Ginseng Side Effects
Researchers tested the effect of Siberian Ginseng on 20 seniors with respect to health related quality of life
(HRQOL). After 4 week study, they found that patients randomized to Siberian Ginseng had a higher scores
in social functioning scales compared to those received placebo. And, they found no side effects on both
groups. [5] Siberian ginseng may be safe for most people at low doses for a short term use. However, side
effects may include drowsiness, changes in heart rhythm, sadness, anxiety, muscle spasms and other side
effects. High doses may raise blood pressure. People with blood pressure over 180/90 should not take
Siberian Ginseng.

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REFERENCE [1] Deyama T et al, Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng. Acta
Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1057-70. [2] Bu Y et al, Siberian ginseng reduces infarct volume in transient focal
cerebral ischaemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Phytother Res. 2005 Feb;19(2):167-9. Kimura Y and Sumiyoshi M Effects of
various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced
swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):447-53. [4] Park EJ et al, Water-soluble polysaccharide
from Eleutherococcus senticosus stems attenuates fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and
lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004 Jun;94(6):298-304. [5] Cicero AF et al, Effects of Siberian
ginseng (Eleutherococcus
senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004;(9):69-73. [6] Bazaz'ian
GG et al Effect of Eleutherococcus on the functional status of the anticoagulation system in older animals Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1987 Oct;73(10):1390-5.
[7] Hartz AJ et al, Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med. 2004 Jan;34(1):51-61. [6] Arushanian EB et al, Effect of
eleutherococcus on short-term memory and visual perception in healthy humans Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003 Sep-Oct;66(5):10-3.[8] Rogala E et al, The influence of
Eleuterococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol J Vet Sci. 2003;6(3 Suppl):37-9. [9] Yu CY et al, Intraspecific relationship
analysis by DNA markers and in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity in Eleutherococcus senticosus. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003 Apr;17(2):229-36. [10] Drozd J et al,
Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol Pharm. 2002 Sep-Oct;59(5):395-401.
Siberian Ginseng Reviews
Siberian Ginseng is known as Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus) nowaday. Siberian ginseng is a hardy
herb indigenous to the Taiga region of the Far East, which includes southeastern Russia, northern China,
Japan and Korea.
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