Blackberry Benefits

Researchers determined quantitatively on the flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in the leaves from wild and
cultivated variations of Rubus L. species (Rosaceae): raspberry (2 wild and 13 cultivars) and blackberry (3 wild and 3
cultivars). They found that flavonoid content was higher for the blackberry leaves than for the raspberry leaves and
varied between 0.46% and 1.05%. They also found that all the samples had high contents of quercetin, kaempferol,
ellagic acid and tannins. Because of its high contents of various anti-oxidants, it is believed that blackberry may offer a
wide range of health benefits.

Oxidative damage is related to the development of several diseases. An improved antioxidant defense may therefore
protect against these diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that blackberry contains various antioxidants.
These antioxidants may represent an important contribution to blackberry health benefits.

In an in vitro study, scientists assessed the total amount of antioxidants in blackberry by the "ferric-reducing ability of
plasma" assay, a method that measures the sum total of all antioxidants above a reference redox potential. The
results are in accordance with studies in experimental animals demonstrating beneficial effect against some chronic
diseases. [3] In a study of 11 cultivars, researchers found huge variation of the antioxidants among these 11 cultivars.
Total anthocyanins for 11 blackberry cultivars ranged from 131 to 256 mg/100 g FW (mean = 198), total phenolics
ranged from 682 to 1056 mg GAE/100 g FW (mean = 900), oxygen radical absorbance capacity ranged from 37.6 to
75.5 micromol TE/g FW (mean = 50.2), and ferric reducing antioxidant power ranged from 63.5 to 91.5 micromol TE/g
FW (mean = 77.5). In addition, their total antioxidant activity was found to increase with ripening. Total anthocyanin
pigments increased from 74.7 to 317 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) from under-ripe to overripe for Marion blackberries
and from 69.9 to 164 mg/100 g FW for Evergreen blackberries. [4]  

Blackberry may have benefits of inflammation protection.
Researchers have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of anthocyanins contained in blackberry extract (cyanidin-3-O-
glucoside represents about 80% of the total anthocyanin contents) in an experimental model of lung inflammation
induced by carrageenan in rats.
They found that anthocyanins (10, 30 mg kg(-1) 30 min before carrageenan) could attenuated all parameters of
inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the beneficial effects of blackberry may be related to its strong anti-
oxidant activities. [7]

Blackberry may have benefits of anti-bacterial effects.
Researchers found that commercial blackberry may have benefits on fighting bacteria. Commercial blackberry cordials
inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium phlei while the fresh blackberry inhibited the growth of varying numbers of
bacteria. [8]

Blackberry may offer benefits on endothelial dysfunctions.
Italian researchers demonstrated that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside represents about 80% of the total anthocyanin contents
in blackberry extract using  HPLC/ESI/MS. They found that that cyanidin-3-O-glucoside of the blackberry juice is a
scavenger of peroxynitrite and that exert a protective benefits against endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure
induced by peroxynitrite. [9]

Anthocyanins are absorbed in stomach and small intestine. However, anthocyanins are quickly metabolized and
excreted into bile and urine as intact glycosides as well as methylated forms and glucuronidated derivatives. [6]

[1] Mrs. M. Grieve, Blackberry, Online publication, September 20, 2005.
[2] Blackberries and Raspberries (Rubus spp.) Mark RiegerÂ’s Fruit Crop, The University of Georgia, September 20, 2005. [3]
Blomhoff R, Antioxidants and oxidative stress, Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 Jun 17;124(12):1643-5. [4] Siriwoharn T et al,
Influence of cultivar, maturity, and sampling on blackberry (Rubus L. Hybrids) anthocyanins, polyphenolics, and antioxidant
properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 29;52(26):8021-30. [5] Gudej J Determination of flavonoids, tannins and ellagic acid in
leaves from Rubus L. species. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Nov;27(11):1114-9. [6] Talavera S et al, Anthocyanins are efficiently absorbed
from the small intestine in rats. J Nutr. 2004 Sep;134(9):2275-9. [7] Rossi A et al, Protective effects of anthocyanins from
blackberry in a rat model of acute lung inflammation. Free Radic Res. 2003 Aug;37(8):891-900. [8] Cavanagh HM et al,
Antibacterial activity of berry fruits used for culinary purposes. J Med Food. 2003 Spring;6(1):57-61. [9] Serraino I et al, Protective
effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure.
Life Sci.
2003 Jul 18;73(9):1097-114.
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Blackberry Fruit Nutrition Facts, Uses and Benefits - Reviews
Blackberry (subgenus Eubatus) belongs to Rosaceae family, closely related to strawberry in the subfamily Rosoideae. Blackberry plants typically
have biennial canes and perennial roots. Blackberries and raspberries are also called caneberries or brambles. Blackberry is found in northern
hemisphere. Blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils, readily colonizing wasteland, ditches and vacant lots. Blackberry produces flowers in late spring,
each flower is about 2-3 cm in diameter.

Blackberry fruits are aggregate fruits, which means they are formed by the aggregation of several smaller fruits, called drupelets. The drupelets are
all attached to a receptacle, and this receptacle is the fibrous central core of the fruit. [2] These drupelets contain malic and citric acid, pectin and
albumin. [1] The blackberry fruit is popular for use in desserts, jams, seedless jellies and sometimes wine, while Bark of blackberry root and leaves
contains high contents of tannin and it may have health benefits on dysentery and diarrhea.

Blackberry is a good source of fiber, vitamins C and K, folic acid and manganese, it also contains copper, magnesium, potassium, etc.  Blackberry
contains lots of antioxidants - ellagic acid, tannins, ellagitannins, quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins and cyanidins, while its seed contains omega-3
and 6 acids, protein, fiber, carotenoids, ellagitannins and ellagic acid.