The growth hormone (GH) secretion declines by 14% with each decade of adult life. Several attempts have been
made to reverse the manifestations of the senile GH deficiency, termed somatopause, but GH substitution
treatment in old age has not yet developed an established regimen

GHRH GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) is an effective inducer of GH release in growing calves.
ACIPIMOX- Acipimox is a nicotinic acid analog which has been shown to stimulate growth hormone secretion in
adult and short healthy prepubertal children. In the study of the children, no side effects other than mild facial
flushing were noted after acipimox administration.

ESTRADIOL- Estradiol stimulates pulsatile growth hormone secretion, at least in part, possibly by enhancing the
release and/or action of hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone. [Veldhuis JD et al, Estradiol
supplementation in postmenopausal women doubles rebound-like release of growth hormone (GH) triggered by
sequential infusion and withdrawal of somatostatin: evidence that estrogen facilitates endogenous

Subcutaneous injection of estradiol to ovariectomized goats increased the GH pulse amplitude and AUC. [4]

GHRELIN- Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion via growth hormone secretagogue receptors, and it
increases appetite. Ghrelin secretion in the stomach depends on both acute and chronic changes in energy
balance. Presently available data support the hypothesis that the stomach, in addition to its important role in
digestion, not only influences pituitary hormone secretion via ghrelin production but it also sends orexigenic
(caloric intake , appetite increasing) signals to hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of energy
homeostasis. Abnormal ghrelin activity leads to over- or underweight.

RIVASTIGMINE- Rivastigmine, a cerebral selective cholinesterase-inhibitor (ChEI), was shown to be a powerful
drug to enhance GH release to repeated GHRH stimulation in healthy elderly human subjects.
ASTRAGALUS- Kim C et al at Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine found A. Radix extract induced growth
hormone release in the rat pituitary cell culture.

ZN LI L et al at 304th Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Beijing found that supplementation of Zn rapidly
raised the Zn and growth hormone serum levels.

Acute supplementation with zinc or vitamin E did not influence the effects of exhaustive running on metabolic and
endocrine responses in women.
ARGININE Cochard A et al at Laboratoire du jeune ruminant, France found that arginine increased growth
hormone in a dose-dependent manner.

Japanese had similar findings from a study of rats [Hebiguchi T et al, The effect of arginine supplementation on
growth hormone release and intestinal mucosal growth after massive small bowel resection in growing rats,
[13] J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Aug;32(8):1149-53.]

HOWEVER, Marcell TJ et al at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, found that Arg does not stimulate
GH secretion and may impair GH release during resistive exercise.

FIBER ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS- Houseknecht KL et al at University of Georgia, Athens  found that basal
growth hormone concentration and peak amplitude were higher in low energy-fiber than in high energy-starch
and high energy-fiber treatments. [Houseknecht [15]

On the other hand, high-protein diet is found to decrease plasma growth hormone levels.

GLUCOCORTICOID- A stimulation of specific growth hormone synthesis was observed at 10(-9) M
dexamethasone, and the maximum stimulation was found at dexamethasone concentrations of about 10(-8) to
10(-7) M in a study of rat pituitary cell suspension culture.

GLYCINE, GLUTAMINE AND NIACIN- Arwert LI et al at VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands found
that oral mixture of glycine, glutamine and niacin can enhance GH secretion in healthy middle-aged and elderly
subjects in their study of 14 men and 29 women.

CREATINE- In resting conditions and at high dosages creatine enhances growth hormone secretion, mimicking
the response of strong exercise which also stimulates growth hormone secretion.

L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA) is considered as an anti-parkinsonian chemical against parkinsonian
[20] A 500 mg L-Dopa administration in normal and cirrhotic subjects does not determinate a
significant varation of plasma glucose and insulin level, while a peak plasma GH level in both cirrhotic and normal
subjects occurred at 90' with a significantly greates values in cirrhotics.

Alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the growth hormone (GH) responses to
GH-release hormone of young and elderly subjects.
[22] , alpha-GPC is able to increase the amount of
acetylcholine released by rat hippocampus slices following potassium stimulation
Growth Hormone Deficiency
The bodies of some children
don't produce enough growth
hormone on their own. If a child
is in lack of growth hormone,
there will be a noticeable
slowing of growth in height.
Other signs and symptoms for
children with growth hormone
deficiency may include
hypoglycemia (very low blood
sugars),  seizures and "looking
younger" than other kids.
[ online
publication, April 26, 2005]
Genotropin (somatropin [rDNA
origin] for injection) is an exact
copy of the natural growth
hormone.  Genotropin is used
with the child fails to grow
because his or her body does
not produce enough growth

Growth hormone therapy
should not be used in patients
suffered from cancer.

Growth hormone deficiency, on-line
publication, April 2005.
[1] Itoh F et al, GH secretory responses to ghrelin and GHRH in growing and lactating dairy cattle, Domest Anim
Endocrinol. 2005 Jan;28(1):34-45.] [2] Lanes R et al, Acipimox, a nicotinic acid analog, stimulates growth hormone
secretion in short healthy prepubertal children , J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep-Oct;13(8):1115-20. [3]
GH-releasing hormone drive, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jan;89(1):121-7]. [4] Yonezawa T, Modulation of
Growth Hormone Pulsatility by Sex Steroids in Female Goats Endocrinology. 2005 Mar 10] [5-7] Garweg C, Ghrelin
and obesity, Rev Med Liege. 2005 Jan;60(1):35-40]. [Chanoine JP, Ghrelin in Growth and Development, Horm
Res. 2005 Mar 24;63(3):129-138] Pusztai P , Ghrelin: a new peptide regulating the neurohormonal system and
energy homeostasis, Orv Hetil. 2004 Dec 19;145(51):2569-73] [Hashizume T et al, Effects of ghrelin on growth
hormone secretion in vivo in ruminants , Regul Pept. 2005 Mar 15;126(1-2):61-5.[8] Obermayr RP et al, The
age-related down-regulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in the elderly male is reversed
considerably by donepezil, a drug for Alzheimer's disease, Exp Gerontol. 2005 Mar;40(3):157-163. Epub 2004 Dec
23.] [9] Li L et al, Effects of supplement Zn on levels of Zn in serum, growth hormone and hydroxyproline,
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Shao Shang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 1998 Nov;14(6):425-8.[10] Singh A et al, Neuroendocrine
responses to running in women after zinc and vitamin E supplementation, Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999
Apr;31(4):536-42.][11] Kim C et al, Induction of growth hormone by the roots of Astragalus membranaceus in
pituitary cell culture, Arch Pharm Res. 2003 Jan;26(1):34-9][12] Cochard A et al, Plasma growth hormone (GH),
insulin and amino acid responses to arginine with or without aspartic acid in pigs. Effect of the dose, Reprod Nutr
Dev. 1998 May-Jun;38(3):331-43] [13] J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Aug;32(8):1149-53.] [14-16] Marcell TJ et al, Oral
arginine does not stimulate basal or augment exercise-induced GH secretion in either young or old adults, J
Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999 Aug;54(8):M395-9.] Fligger JM et al, also found supplementary L-Arg does not
increase plasma GH concentrations. [Fligger JM et al, Arginine supplementation increases weight gain, depresses
antibody production, and alters circulating leukocyte profiles in preruminant calves without affecting plasma growth
hormone concentrations., J Anim Sci. 1997 Nov;75(11):3019-25.] [15] KL et al, Effect of dietary energy source and
level on serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, growth and body composition in beef heifers, J Anim
Sci. 1988 Nov;66(11):2916-23.][16] Clarke IJ et al, Effect of high-protein feed supplements on concentrations of
growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 in plasma and on the amounts
of GH and messenger RNA for GH in the pituitary glands of adult rams. J Endocrinol. 1993 Sep;138(3):421-7] [17]
Yu LY et al, Glucocorticoid induction of growth hormone synthesis in a strain of rat pituitary cells, J Biol Chem.
1977 Jun 10;252(11):3870-5.]  [18] Arwert LI et al, Effects of an oral mixture containing glycine, glutamine and
niacin on memory, growth hormone and IGF-I secretion in middle-aged and elderly subjects, utr Neurosci. 2003
Oct;6(5):269-75.] [19] Schedel JM et al, Acute creatine loading enhances human growth hormone secretion. J
Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000 Dec;40(4):336-42.] [20] Amino Acids. 2005 Mar;28(2):157-64. Epub 2005 Mar 9].
But, it may induce neurotoxicity. [Neurotox Res. 2003;5(3):165-76.] [21] Greco AV et al, GH secretion after L-dopa
administration in hepatic cirrhosis, Minerva Med. 1976 Oct 6;67(47):3027-32.] [22] Horm Metab Res. 1992
Mar;24(3):119-21] [23] Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Aug;39(4):835-40]
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