Cod Liver Oil Side Effects-high blood pressure?
In about 5 to 10% of pregnancies, mother develops high blood pressure (gestational hypertension). Gestational
hypertension may put the health of the mother and infant at risk. At riskier condition -pre-eclampsia, protein
excretion also occurs. [2]

Fish oil or cod liver oil is commonly suggested to pregnant women, it is beneficial to know what impact that cod liver
oil may offer to the mothers.

In an observational prospective study of 488 pregnant Icelandic women, researchers estimated the maternal use
of cod-liver oil, foods and other supplements with questionnaires. They found the odds ratio for developing
hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for women consuming high doses of liquid cod-liver oil was 4.7. Further, the
use of multivitamin supplements without vitamins A and D in late pregnancy doubled the odds of hypertensive
disorders. [1]

On the other hand, an animal study showed that cod liver oil could lower blood pressure of Wistar rats. And, its
effect on blood pressure lowering even more pronounced than that of sunflowerseed oil or partially hydrogenated
fish oil!! [3] Probably, more studies are needed to clarify its effects on our blood pressure.

Cod Liver Oil Benefits and Side Effects

[1] Olafsdottir AS, et al, Relationship between high consumption of marine fatty acids in early pregnancy and
hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.BJOG. 2006 Mar;113(3):301-9. [2] High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Linked
to High Intake of Cod Liver Oil and Multi-Vitamins Fats of Life Newsletter June 2006. [3] Ziemlanski S et al, Effect of
dietary fats on experimental hypertension.Ann Nutr Metab. 1985;29(4):223-31.
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Cod liver oil is an oil extracted from cod livers. It was once a popular nutrititonal supplement for children, as it the
cooked livers to extract the oil, while, fish oils are extracted from the cooked whole body tissues of fatty fish. Though
cod liver oil and fish oils are similar, cod liver oil contains much  more vitamins A and D per unit weight than regular
fish oil. A high quality cod liver oil is pale-yellow, thin, oily liquid with fishy taste. Cod liver oil is a drug as well as food
since it is recognized in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Cod liver oil cotains, in each g, not less than 255 ug
of vitamin A and not less than 2.125 ug of vitamin D. Cod liver oil may be flavored by the addition of less than 1% of
a suitable flavor or a mixture of flavors.

Cod liver oil benefits on arthritis has been demonstrated in several studies. Maternal intake of cod liver oil early in
pregnancy was associated with a higher birthweight. Higher birthweight always indicates a lower risk of diseases
later in life. The amount of vitamin D activity in a teaspoon of cod liver oil was sufficient to prevent rickets in infants.
A study of 545 childhood-onset type 1 diabetes and 1668 population control subjects in Norway shows the use of
cod liver oil in the first year of life associated with a significantly lower risk of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D was
reported to help ward off many types of
cancer. Lipid disorders and increased oxidative stress may exacerbate
some complications of diabetes mellitus. Some ingredients in cod liver oil may help protect the cells from the
destructive effect of increased lipids and lipid peroxidation products.  [For details:
Cod Liver Oil Benefits]

Side effects of cod liver oil can be serious, especially compared with NSAIDs. Cod liver oil has been demonstrated
to have blood pressure lowering activities in animal studies. Another serious side effect can be related to gastric
erosion. [For details:
Cod Liver Oil Side Effects]
Cod Liver Oil Vs Fish Oil