The measurement of the amount of glycosylated haemoglobin in the blood. A1C provides an
estimate of how well diabetes is being managed over time. ADA guidelines recommend an A1C
target of 7.0% or less for people with type 2 diabetes to help prevent long-term medical
complications such as cardiovascular disease and stroke.

The Latin acronym for twice daily.

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG)
Fasting Plasma Glucose is a measurement of an individual's blood glucose level after eight hours
without food or drink. According to ADA guidelines, Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) levels should be
less than 110 mg/dl. Traditionally, evaluating Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) levels has been a key
means for keeping A1C targets in check.

Glycaemic control
The ability to reach and sustain blood glucose levels of 7.0% or less as recommended by the
American Diabetes Association guidelines.

A condition in which there is a low level of blood glucose in the blood that deprives muscles, cells
and brain with the energy needed to function. Hypoglycaemia can be triggered by taking too much
insulin, by not following the prescribed meal schedule or by participating in unusually strenuous or
prolonged exercise. Hypoglycaemic symptoms may include profuse sweating, a rapid heartbeat,
feelings of panic, hunger or weakness, dizziness, trembling, blurred vision, slurred speech or a

Major event:
Hypoglycaemic incidences that require medical assistance/intervention, such as an injection of

Minor event:
Hypoglycaemic incidences that can be managed by the individual person by eating something
sweet or drinking a small amount of fruit juice.

Nocturnal event:
Hypoglycaemic incidences that occur between midnight and 6.00 am.

The three main characteristics of insulin, as part of the treatment protocol for diabetes, include:

The length of time before the insulin reaches the bloodstream to begin lowering the blood glucose.

Peak time:
The period of time at which the insulin is working at its maximum strength to lower blood glucose

The amount of time that the insulin lasts to lower blood glucose levels.

Intermediate-acting insulin
Insulin (human) that generally reaches the blood stream about 2 to 4 hours after it is injected,
peaks 4 to 12 hours after it is injected and is effective for 12 to 18 hours. Intermediate-acting
insulin is often used in combination with short-acting insulin.

Long-acting insulin
Insulin (ultralente) that reaches the bloodstream 6 to 10 hours after injection and is usually
effective for 18 to 24 hours. Long-acting insulin may be absorbed at different rates in different

Macrovascular disease
Diabetes-related complications that may arise from a long-term lack of glycaemic control and A1C
levels that are above the recommended 7.0% target. These complications include cardiovascular
disease and stroke.

Metformin is a drug that decreases the liver's production of glucose and also helps cells incorporate
and use glucose. Metformin is the preferred first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Insulin is commonly added to metformin when glycaemic targets are no longer met with metformin
therapy alone.

Microvascular disease
Diabetes-related complications that may arise from a long-term lack of glycaemic control and A1C
levels that are above the recommended 7.0% target. These complications include retinopathy,
neuropathy and nephropathy.

Oral antidiabetics (OADs)
Oral antidiabetics (OADs) are oral medications that are prescribed to people with type 2 diabetes.
Oral antidiabetics (OADs) can be used on their own or in conjunction with insulin.

Postprandial Glucose (PPG)
Postprandial Glucose is a measurement of an individualÂ’s blood glucose level after eating. ADA
guidelines emphasise that Postprandial Glucose (PPG) levels should be less than 180 mg/dl.
Increasingly, medical research is finding that Postprandial Glucose (PPG), in conjunction with
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), plays a significant role in achieving and maintaining targeted A1C

The Latin acronym for once daily.

Rapid-acting insulin
Insulin that begins to work 15 minutes after it is injected, peaks in about an hourÂ’s time and
continues to work for 2 to 4 hours after injection. Rapid-acting insulin typically is injected
immediately before a meal.

Short-acting insulin
Insulin (human) that usually reaches the bloodstream within 30 minutes after injection and peaks
between 2 to 3 hours after injection.

Self Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG)
Self Monitoring Blood Glucose. As part of their daily treatment regimen, patients self-monitor their
blood glucose levels so that they can review these numbers with their physician and diabetes care
team. The results of blood glucose monitoring are used to determine how well a particular
treatment approach is working and what changes, if any, are necessary.

The Latin acronym for three times daily.

The insulin dosage prescribed by the treating physician. The insulin dosage at the time of
administration should be titrated to meet the glycaemic needs of the patient. A physician also may
titrate a patientÂ’s treatment with once, twice, or three times daily dosing to help ensure that A1C
targets are met.

Discuss with your doctor before taking any alternative medicine. This article is for
reference only, it is not a medical advice. All rights reserved. Do not copy this article to
other website or blog.
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