Krill oil supplementation showed benefits on bone health in an animal study. Sprague-Dawley rats were
randomly assigned (n=10/group) to a high fat 12% (wt) diet consisting of either corn oil or ω-3 PUFA rich,
flaxseed, krill oil, menhaden oil, salmon oil or tuna oil for 8 weeks. Bone mass and lipid peroxidation were
assessed. Results showed that rats fed tuna oil, rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had higher tibial bone
mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and lower lipid peroxidation compared to the corn oil-
fed rats. Reduced lipid peroxidation was associated with increased tibial BMD and BMC. On the other hand,
rats fed flaxseed oil or menhaden oil, rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), improved bone microarchitecture
compared to rats fed corn oil or salmon oil. Serum osteocalcin was higher in rats fed flaxseed oil compared to
rats fed salmon oil. Serum osteocalcin was associated with improved trabecular bone microarchitecture. 
Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels
Krill oil supplement may benefit users suffered from high lipid levels. The mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier
supplies cytosol with the carbon units necessary for hepatic lipogenesis. The activities of cytosolic acetyl-CoA
carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase are therefore strictly connected to the function of mitochondrial
tricarboxylate carrier. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are potent modulators of hepatic lipogenesis.
In rats fed with a diet enriched with 2.5% krill oil, a source of dietary n-3 PUFA, a time-dependent decrease in
the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier and of the lipogenic enzymes was found. The krill oil
induced inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis was more pronounced than that found in fish oil-fed rats, at least at
short feeding times. The decrease in the activity of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate carrier caused by krill oil
was due to a reduced expression of the protein. Furthermore, in the krill oil -fed animals a greater reduction in
the levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol was found in comparison to fish oil -fed rats.
In a clinical study, 113 subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels
were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA =543
mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did
not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA,
and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there
were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil
groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative
stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent
comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the
fish oil. 
Collagen-induced arthritis susceptible DBA/1 mice were provided ad libitum access to a control diet or diets
supplemented with either krill oil or fish oil throughout the study.
There were 14 mice in each of the 3 treatment groups. The level of EPA + DHA was 0.44 g/100 g in the krill oil
diet and 0.47 g/100 g in the fish oil diet. It was found that consumption of krill oil and supplemented diet
significantly reduced the arthritis scores and hind paw swelling when compared to a control diet not
supplemented with EPA and DHA. However, the arthritis score during the late phase of the study was only
significantly reduced after krill oil administration. Furthermore, mice fed the krill oil diet demonstrated lower
infiltration of inflammatory cells into the joint and synovial layer hyperplasia, when compared to control.
Inclusion of fish oil and krill oil in the diets led to a significant reduction in hyperplasia and total histology score.
Krill oil did not modulate the levels of serum cytokines whereas consumption of fish oil increased the levels of IL-
1alpha and IL-13. Thus, krill oil may be a useful for inflammatory arthritis. 
Krill Oil Vs Fish Oil Cod Liver Oil Benefits Fish Oil Benefits
Reference: Lukas R, et al, Consumption of different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by
growing female rats affects long bone mass and microarchitecture. Bone. 2011 Sep;49(3):455-62. 
Ferramosca A, et al, A krill oil supplemented diet reduces the activities of the mitochondrial tricarboxylate
carrier and of the cytosolic lipogenic enzymes in rats. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2011 Feb 25.  Ulven
SM, et al, Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and
DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids. 2011 Jan;46(1):37-46.  Ierna M, et al, Supplementation of diet with krill oil
protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010 Jun 29;11:136.
Krill is the common name given to the order Euphausiacea of shrimp-like marine crustaceans. Krill is also
known as euphausiids, these small invertebrates are found in all oceans of the world. The Norwegian word krill
means "young fry of fish". Krill oil has three important ingredients: (1) omega-3 fatty acids, (2) omega-3 fatty
acids attached (conjugated) to phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and (3)
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