The xanthophyll lutein is believed to function in two ways: (1) filter the high energy blue light and
quenches and (2) scavenges photo induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been
observed that lutein consumption is inverely related to eye diseases, especially the age-related
macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts. 
Scientists have found that lutein and its stero isomer-zeaxanthin are deposited in the lens and
the macula lutea (the area of the retina for central and high acuity vision). Lutein
supplementation has been shown to improve vision in patients with AMD, protect skin from
UV-induced damage and help protect from cardiovascular disease. 
Lutein is readily absorbed from foods or supplements. A serum lutein concentration in the
range of 0.6-1.05 micromol/l may be safe, dietary achievable and the desirable target may be
associated with the beneficial impact on visual function and the development of other chronic
diseases. [1, 6]
Dr. Stuart Richer's recent study suggested that AMD symptoms might be reversed through
purified lutein supplementation or a supplement mix of lutein and other antioxidants. Patients
taking the lutein supplement had a significant improvements in several visual functions such as
glare recovery, contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. 
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FINDINGS
 Macular pigment is suggested to be entirely of dietary origin, protects against age-related
maculopathy (ARM). Lutein has beneficial effects on ARM. 
 Visual function can be improved with lutein alone or lutein together with other nutrients in the
treatment of atrophic age-related macular degeneration  .
Lutein side effects
Lutein is generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
 Granado F. et al, Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health. Br J Nutr. 2003 Sep;90(3):487-502.
 Alves-Rodrigues A et al, The science behind lutein, Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 15;150(1):57-83.  Richer et al,
Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention
of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial).
Optometry, 2004 Apr; 75(4):216-30. Koh et al. UMIST, Manchester, UK. Plasma and macular responses to lutein
supplement in subjects with and without age-related maculopathy: a pilot study, Exp Eye Res. 2004 Jul; 79(1):21-7.
 L.A. Times: Lutein may reverse vision loss, April 7, 2004.  Stahl. W. Macular carotenoids: lutein and
zeaxanthin. Dev Ophthalmol. 2005;38:70-88.
Health Benefits of Lutein, lutein Side Effects, lutein dosage
firstname.lastname@example.org August 2011
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