Lingonberry is a low creeping evergreen shrub, grow in North America and Eurasia. Lingoberry has drooping clusters
of small white or pinkish flowers. Lingonberry produces more fruit in full sun. Its leaves are dark green and waxy. Its
berries are red and ripen in August. Like blueberry, Lingonberry thrives in acid soils, pH 3.5 to 5. [1]

It is simple to grow Lingonberry, you just need to place them in well-drained sites with generous additions of organic
matter such as peat, bark or sawdust. Cross-pollination will improve production. Lingonberry requires very little
fertilizer. Generally a balanced acid mixture used for rhododendrons or azaleas once in the spring is sufficient. [4]

Related terms: Vaccinium vitis-idaea , lingberry, lingoberry, mountain cranberry and cowberry. [2]

Traditional Use of Lingonberry:
Lingonberry is the most important of all forest berries in Finland. Lingonberry is used in different kinds of jams, jellies,
juices, pasties, pie and porridges. Whipped lingonberry pudding served with cream becomes a Finnish dessert.  [3]
Lingonberries are getting popular for landscaping of AmericanÂ’s backyard. Lingonberry offers an exciting additional
color and fruit to gardens in Northern America. Lingonberry is also called European cranberry, partridgeberry, and
foxberry, lingonberry grows 4-16" high, and spreads slowly through underground rhizomes.

Lingonberry Composition
Lingonberry is rich source of fibers, sugar, vitamin A, vitamin C and magnesium. Lingonberry also consists of large
amount of flavonoids and lignans. Lignans and flavonoids are believed to be anti-cancer. Lingonberry is also rich in
benzoic acid, thus, they are often used as antimicrobial agents in food preparations. [5]

Arbutin content in Lingonberry is about 4.44%. [6] While, the level of hydrophilic carboxylic acids in lingonberry is
about 2.27-3.05%. [7]

Among 25 common edible berries,  bog whortleberry has the highest content of quercetin and
lingonberry is at the
second place (74 and 146 mg/kg), The total contents of these flavonols in cranberry, bog whortleberry, lingonberry,
black currant, and crowberry are higher than those in the regularly consumed fruits or vegetables, except onion, kale,
and broccoli. [8]

Researchers at U.S. Department of Agriculture, determined the antioxidant activities of phenolics in fruits of
blueberry, cranberry, wild chokeberry, and lingonberry They found anthocyanins as the main components in all these
berries: chlorogenic acid in blueberry, quercetin glycosides in cranberry and lingonberry, [9]

LINGONBERRY'S Health Benefits
Lingonberry contains quercetin, it may have a lot of health benefits. And, here we highlight a few potential lingonberry

Antioxidant / Anti-cancer cells activity of lingonberry
Lingonberry has been shown to contain high antioxidant activity. Researchers isolated six tannins from linonberry.
and found that cinnamtannin B1 displayed the strongest anti-lipid peroxidation activity, proanthocyanidin A-1
displayed the strongest superoxide scavenging activity, and epicatechin-(4beta--> 6)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta--
>O--> 7)-catechin had the strongest anti-superoxide formation effect. [10] And, crude extracts of lingonberry were
able to inhibit ornithine decarboxylase activity. The proanthocyanidin fraction of lingonberry exhibited
anticarcinogenic activity [11] Researchers from U.S. Department of Agriculture reported that lingonberries contained
potent free radical scavenging activities for DPPH*, ROO*, *OH, and O2*- radicals.  They further reported that
lingonberry extract was able to suppress TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P(+) mice cells and
lingonberry extract could also induce apoptosis (death) of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-independent
manner. [12] Thus, lingonberry may benefit people at risk of certain cancers, but more studies are needed to prove
this idea.

Lingonberry's antimicrobial effects and its effect on urinary tract infection
Lingonberry may benefit people suffered from certain infections. In a study, six tannins from lingonberry showed anti-
microbial activities and epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-catechin had a strong
antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, but not A. actinomycetemcomitans. While, the other
tannins tested did not show antimicrobial activity. [13] In a separated study, scientists recruited 150 women with
urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli and they served them with 50 ml of
cranberry-lingonberry juice
concentrate daily for six months or 100 ml of lactobacillus drink five days a week for one year, or no intervention.
They found a 20% reduction in absolute risk in the cranberry-lingonberry group compared with the control group. [14]

Lingonberry Safety / Side Effects / Allergic effects
The level of poisonous metals in lingonberry liqueurs such as Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb,
and Zn was determined to be very low: less than 0.1, Cd less than 0.005 and Pb less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l. [15]
One case of allergy to lingonberry was reported in 2004. [16]

Stability of a key lingonberry ingredient
According to Hakkinen’s report, traditional preservation of crushed lingonberry in their own juice caused a
considerable (40%) loss of quercetin. Only 15% of quercetin and 30% of myricetin present in unprocessed berries
were retained in juices made by common domestic methods (e.g. unpasteurized lingonberry juice). During 9 months
of storage at 20 C, quercetin content decreased markedly (40%) in lingonberry, [17]

R&D on lingonberry
Procter & Gamble Company is developing carbonated juice beverage with cola taste selected from the group of fruits,
lingonberry is one of the fruits to be considered. [18]Another group is developing edible compositions
comprising freeze-dried flavoring agents, wherein
lingonberry may be one of the agents. [19]

Bioavailability of a key lingonberry ingredient
The absorption for quercetin is good based on a clinical study of 40 healthy men aged 60 y. [20]
[1], online- publication and; May 16, 2005] [2], Online-
publication, May 16, 2005] [3] [3]] [4 ]
html] [5], May 16, 2005] [6] Sun H et al,
Determination of arbutin in the herbs of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. by RP-HPLC, Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1997 Sep;22(9):555 inside
back cover] [7] Jensen HD et al Hydrophilic carboxylic acids and iridoid glycosides in the juice of American and European cranberries
(Vaccinium macrocarpon and V. oxycoccos), lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea), and blueberries (V. myrtillus). J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Nov 6;50
(23):6871-4.[8] Hakkinen SH et alContent of the flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in 25 edible berries, J Agric Food Chem.
1999 Jun;47(6):2274-9.] [9] Zheng W and Wang SY,Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries,
chokeberries, and lingonberry. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 15;51(2):502-9] [10] Antioxidant activity of tannin components from
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999 Sep;51(9):1075-8.] [11] Bomser J et al, In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from
Vaccinium species, Planta Med. 1996 Jun;62(3):212-6.] [12] Wang SY, et al, Antioxidant activity in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)
and its inhibitory effect on activator protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation. J Agric Food
Chem. 2005 Apr 20;53(8):3156-66.] [13] Ho KY et al, Antimicrobial activity of tannin components from Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., J Pharm
Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;53(2):187-91. [14] Kontiokari T et al, Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink
for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. 2001 Jun 30;322(7302):1571. Regular drinking of cranberry-lingonberry juice
concentrate reduced recurrent urinary tract infections in women. Evid Based Nurs. 2002 Apr;5(2):43.] [15] Harju K and Ronkainen P.
Metals in Finnish liqueurs. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1984 May;178(5):393-6.] [16] Matheu V et al, Allergy to lingonberry: A case report.,
Clin Mol Allergy. 2004 Mar 1;2(1):2. [17] Influence of domestic processing and storage on flavonol contents in berries. J Agric Food
Chem. 2000 Jul;48(7):2960-5.] [18] Kupper et al, Carbonated juice beverage with cola taste, Patent No. 4,612,205 [19] Edible
compositions comprising freeze-dried flavoring agents, Patent Application Number 20020182270 [20] Consumption of black currants,
lingonberry and bilberries increases serum quercetin concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jan;57(1):37-42.]
Lingonberry Benefits and Side Effects;
Reviewed on August 17, 2013
Reasonable care has been taken in preparing this document and the information provided herein is believed to be accurate. The information is not
intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. It is important to seek the advice of a physician about any medical condition or symptom
or the benefits and side effects of a supplement or a drug product. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.