Men who have benign prostatic hyperplasia with symptoms usually need some kind of treatment at some time. However, a number of researchers have questioned the need for early treatment when the gland is just mildly enlarged. The results of their studies indicate that early treatment may not be needed because the benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms clear up without treatment in as many as one-third of all mild cases. Instead of immediate treatment, they suggest regular checkups to watch for early problems. If the condition begins to pose a danger to the patient's health or causes a major inconvenience to him, treatment is usually recommended.
Since benign prostatic hyperplasia can cause urinary tract infections, a doctor will usually clear up any infection with antibiotics before treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia itself. Although the need for treatment is not usually urgent, doctors generally advise going ahead with treatment once the problems become bothersome or present a health risk.
The following section describes the types of treatment that are most commonly used for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia medications Over the years, researchers have tried to find a way to shrink or at least stop the growth of the prostate without using surgery. The FDA has approved six benign prostatic hyperplasia medications to relieve common symptoms associated with an enlarged prostate.
Finasteride (Proscar), FDA-approved in 1992, and dutasteride (Avodart), FDA-approved in 2001, inhibit production of the hormone DHT, which is involved with prostate enlargement. The use of either of these drugs can either prevent progression of growth of the prostate or actually shrink the prostate in some men.
The FDA also approved the drugs terazosin (Hytrin) in 1993, doxazosin (Cardura) in 1995, tamsulosin (Flomax) in 1997, and alfuzosin (Uroxatral) in 2003 as benign prostatic hyperplasia medications. All four medications act by relaxing the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck to improve urine flow and to reduce bladder outlet obstruction. The four medications belong to the class known as alpha blockers. Terazosin and doxazosin were developed first to treat high blood pressure. Tamsulosin and alfuzosin were developed specifically to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) Trial, supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), recently found that using finasteride and doxazosin together is more effective than using either benign prostatic hyperplasia medication alone to relieve symptoms and prevent benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. The two-drug regimen reduced the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression by 67 percent, compared with 39 percent for doxazosin alone and 34 percent for finasteride alone.
Minimally Invasive Therapy Because benign prostatic hyperplasia medication is not effective in all cases, researchers in recent years have developed a number of procedures that relieve benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms but are less invasive than conventional surgery.
Transurethral microwave procedures. In 1996, the FDA approved a device that uses microwaves to heat and destroy excess prostate tissue. In the procedure called transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT), the device sends computer-regulated microwaves through a catheter to heat selected portions of the prostate to at least 111 degrees Fahrenheit. A cooling system protects the urinary tract during the procedure.
The procedure takes about 1 hour and can be performed on an outpatient basis without general anesthesia. TUMT has not been reported to lead to erectile dysfunction or incontinence.
Although microwave therapy does not cure benign prostatic hyperplasia, it reduces urinary frequency, urgency, straining, and intermittent flow. It does not correct the problem of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Ongoing research will determine any long-term effects of microwave therapy and who might benefit most from this therapy.
Transurethral needle ablation. Also in 1996, the FDA approved the minimally invasive transurethral needle ablation (TUNA) system for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The TUNA system delivers low-level radiofrequency energy through twin needles to burn away a well-defined region of the enlarged prostate. Shields protect the urethra from heat damage. The TUNA system improves urine flow and relieves symptoms with fewer side effects when compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). No incontinence or impotence has been observed.
Water-induced thermotherapy. This therapy uses heated water to destroy excess tissue in the prostate. A catheter containing multiple shafts is positioned in the urethra so that a treatment balloon rests in the middle of the prostate. A computer controls the temperature of the water, which flows into the balloon and heats the surrounding prostate tissue. The system focuses the heat in a precise region of the prostate. Surrounding tissues in the urethra and bladder are protected. Destroyed tissue either escapes with urine through the urethra or is reabsorbed by the body.
High-intensity focused ultrasound. The use of ultrasound waves to destroy prostate tissue is still undergoing clinical trials in the United States. The FDA has not yet approved high-intensity focused ultrasound.
Surgical Treatment Most doctors recommend removal of the enlarged part of the prostate as the best long-term solution for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. With surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia, only the enlarged tissue that is pressing against the urethra is removed; the rest of the inside tissue and the outside capsule are left intact. Surgery usually relieves the obstruction and incomplete emptying caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia. The following section describes the types of surgery that are used.
Transurethral surgery. In this type of surgery, no external incision is needed. After giving anesthesia, the surgeon reaches the prostate by inserting an instrument through the urethra.
A procedure called transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is used for 90 percent of all prostate surgeries done for benign prostatic hyperplasia. With TURP, an instrument called a resectoscope is inserted through the penis. The resectoscope, which is about 12 inches long and 1/2 inch in diameter, contains a light, valves for controlling irrigating fluid, and an electrical loop that cuts tissue and seals blood vessels.
During the 90-minute operation, the surgeon uses the resectoscope's wire loop to remove the obstructing tissue one piece at a time. The pieces of tissue are carried by the fluid into the bladder and then flushed out at the end of the operation.
Most doctors suggest using TURP whenever possible. Transurethral procedures are less traumatic than open forms of surgery and require a shorter recovery period. One possible side effect of TURP is retrograde, or backward, ejaculation. In this condition, semen flows backward into the bladder during climax instead of out the urethra.
Another surgical procedure is called transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP). Instead of removing tissue, as with TURP, this procedure widens the urethra by making a few small cuts in the bladder neck, where the urethra joins the bladder, and in the prostate gland itself. Although some people believe that TUIP gives the same relief as TURP with less risk of side effects such as retrograde ejaculation, its advantages and long-term side effects have not been clearly established.
Open surgery. In the few cases when a transurethral procedure cannot be used, open surgery, which requires an external incision, may be used. Open surgery is often done when the gland is greatly enlarged, when there are complicating factors, or when the bladder has been damaged and needs to be repaired. The location of the enlargement within the gland and the patient's general health help the surgeon decide which of the three open procedures to use.
With all the open procedures, anesthesia is given and an incision is made. Once the surgeon reaches the prostate capsule, he or she scoops out the enlarged tissue from inside the gland.
Laser surgery. In March 1996, the FDA approved a surgical procedure that employs side-firing laser fibers and Nd: YAG lasers to vaporize obstructing prostate tissue. The doctor passes the laser fiber through the urethra into the prostate using a cystoscope and then delivers several bursts of energy lasting 30 to 60 seconds. The laser energy destroys prostate tissue and causes shrinkage. As with TURP, laser surgery requires anesthesia and a hospital stay. One advantage of laser surgery over TURP is that laser surgery causes little blood loss. Laser surgery also allows for a quicker recovery time. But laser surgery may not be effective on larger prostates. The long-term effectiveness of laser surgery is not known.
Newer procedures that use laser technology can be performed on an outpatient basis.
Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). PVP uses a high-energy laser to destroy prostate tissue and seal the treated area.
Interstitial laser coagulation. Unlike other laser procedures, interstitial laser coagulation places the tip of the fiberoptic probe directly into the prostate tissue to destroy it.
Recovery After Surgery in the Hospital The amount of time you will stay in the hospital depends on the type of surgery you had and how quickly you recover.
At the end of surgery, a special catheter is inserted through the opening of the penis to drain urine from the bladder into a collection bag. Called a Foley catheter, this device has a water-filled balloon on the end that is put in the bladder, which keeps it in place.
This catheter is usually left in place for several days. Sometimes, the catheter causes recurring painful bladder spasms the day after surgery. These spasms may be difficult to control, but they will eventually disappear.
You may also be given antibiotics while you are in the hospital. Many doctors start giving this medicine before or soon after surgery to prevent infection. However, some recent studies suggest that antibiotics may not be needed in every case, and your doctor may prefer to wait until an infection is present to give them.
After surgery, you will probably notice some blood or clots in your urine as the wound starts to heal. If your bladder is being irrigated (flushed with water), you may notice that your urine becomes red once the irrigation is stopped. Some bleeding is normal, and it should clear up by the time you leave the hospital. During your recovery, it is important to drink a lot of water (up to 8 cups a day) to help flush out the bladder and speed healing.
Do's and Don'ts Take it easy the first few weeks after you get home. You may not have any pain, but you still have an incision that is healing-even with transurethral surgery, where the incision can't be seen. Since many people try to do too much at the beginning and then have a setback, it is a good idea to talk with your doctor before resuming your normal routine. During this initial period of recovery at home, avoid any straining or sudden movements that could tear the incision. Here are some guidelines:
* Continue drinking a lot of water to flush the bladder. * Avoid straining when having a bowel movement. * Eat a balanced diet to prevent constipation. If constipation occurs, ask your doctor if you can take a laxative. * Don't do any heavy lifting. * Don't drive or operate machinery.
Getting Back to Normal After Surgery Even though you should feel much better by the time you leave the hospital, it will probably take a couple of months for you to heal completely. During the recovery period, some common problems, such as, control of urination, discomfort during urination, incontinence, bleeding, sexual function and ejaculation issues may occur. However, most of the issues, will gradually lessen. You should contact your doctor for any discomforts or issues.
Although most men are able to continue having erections after surgery, a prostate procedure frequently makes them sterile (unable to father children) by causing a condition called retrograde ejaculation or dry climax. The coring action of prostate surgery cuts this muscle as it widens the neck of the bladder. Following surgery, the semen takes the path of least resistance and enters the wider opening to the bladder rather than being expelled through the penis. Later it is harmlessly flushed out with urine. In some cases, this condition can be treated with a drug called pseudoephedrine, found in many cold medicines, or imipramine. These medications improve muscle tone at the bladder neck and keep semen from entering the bladder.
Is Further Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment Needed? Since surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia leaves behind a good part of the gland, it is still possible for prostate problems, including benign prostatic hyperplasia, to develop again. However, surgery usually offers relief from benign prostatic hyperplasia for at least 15 years. Only 10 percent of the men who have surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia eventually need a second operation for enlargement. Usually these are men who had the first surgery at an early age.
Sometimes, scar tissue resulting from surgery requires treatment in the year after surgery. Rarely, the opening of the bladder becomes scarred and shrinks, causing obstruction. This problem may require a surgical procedure similar to transurethral incision (see section on Surgical Treatment). More often, scar tissue may form in the urethra and cause narrowing. The doctor can solve this problem during an office visit by stretching the urethra. Prostatic Stents
A stent is a small device that is inserted through the urethra to the narrowed area and allowed to expand, like a spring. The stent pushes back the prostatic tissue, widening the urethra. It is designed to relieve urinary obstruction in men and improve the ability to urinate. The device is approved for use in men for whom other standard surgical procedures to correct urinary obstruction have failed. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Acknowledge and Comments.
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