Do teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have special needs?
Most children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continue to have symptoms as they enter adolescence. Some children, however, are not
diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder until they reach adolescence. This is more common among children with predominantly inattentive
symptoms because they are not necessarily disruptive at home or in school. In these children, the disorder becomes more apparent as academic
demands increase and responsibilities mount. For all teens, these years are challenging. But for teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these
years may be especially difficult.

Although hyperactivity tends to decrease as a child ages, teens who continue to be hyperactive may feel restless and try to do too many things at once.
They may choose tasks or activities that have a quick payoff, rather than those that take more effort, but provide bigger, delayed rewards. Teens with
primarily attention deficits struggle with school and other activities in which they are expected to be more self-reliant.

Teens also become more responsible for their own health decisions. When a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is young, parents are more
likely to be responsible for ensuring that their child maintains treatment. But when the child reaches adolescence, parents have less control, and those
with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may have difficulty sticking with treatment.

To help them stay healthy and provide needed structure, teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should be given rules that are clear and easy
to understand. Helping them stay focused and organized—such as posting a chart listing household chores and responsibilities with spaces to check off
completed items—also may help.

Teens with or without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder want to be independent and try new things, and sometimes they will break rules. If your teen
breaks rules, your response should be as calm and matter-of-fact as possible. Punishment should be used only rarely. Teens with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder often have trouble controlling their impulsivity and tempers can flare. Sometimes, a short time-out can be calming.

If your teen asks for later curfews and use of the car, listen to the request, give reasons for your opinions, and listen to your child's opinion. Rules should
be clear once they are set, but communication, negotiation, and compromise are helpful along the way. Maintaining treatments, such as medication and
behavioral or family therapy, also can help with managing your teenager's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

What about teens and driving?
Although many teens engage in risky behaviors, those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, especially untreated ADHD, are more likely to take
more risks. In fact, in their first few years of driving, teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are involved in nearly four times as many car
accidents as those who do not have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. They are also more likely to cause injury in accidents, and they get three
times as many speeding tickets as their peers.13

Most states now use a graduated licensing system, in which young drivers, both with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learn about
progressively more challenging driving situations.14 The licensing system consists of three stages—learner's permit, during which a licensed adult must
always be in the car with the driving teen; intermediate (provisional) license; and full licensure. Parents should make sure that their teens, especially
those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, understand and follow the rules of the road. Repeated driving practice under adult supervision is
especially important for teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Can adults have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder continue to have it as adults. And many adults who have the disorder don't know it. They may
feel that it is impossible to get organized, stick to a job, or remember and keep appointments. Daily tasks such as getting up in the morning, preparing to
leave the house for work, arriving at work on time, and being productive on the job can be especially challenging for adults with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder.

These adults may have a history of failure at school, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships. Many have had multiple traffic accidents. Like
teens, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may seem restless and may try to do several things at once, most of them unsuccessfully. They
also tend to prefer "quick fixes," rather than taking the steps needed to achieve greater rewards.

How is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosed in adults?
Like children, adults who suspect they have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should be evaluated by a licensed mental health professional. But the
professional may need to consider a wider range of symptoms when assessing adults for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder because their symptoms
tend to be more varied and possibly not as clear cut as symptoms seen in children.

To be diagnosed with the condition, an adult must have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms that began in childhood and continued
throughout adulthood.15 Health professionals use certain rating scales to determine if an adult meets the diagnostic criteria for attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder. The mental health professional also will look at the person's history of childhood behavior and school experiences, and will
interview spouses or partners, parents, close friends, and other associates. The person will also undergo a physical exam and various psychological

For some adults, a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can bring a sense of relief. Adults who have had the disorder since childhood, but
who have not been diagnosed, may have developed negative feelings about themselves over the years. Receiving a diagnosis allows them to
understand the reasons for their problems, and treatment will allow them to deal with their problems more effectively.

How is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated in adults?
Much like children with the disorder, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are treated with medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of

Medications. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, including extended-release forms, often are prescribed for adults with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder, but not all of these medications are approved for adults.16 However, those not approved for adults still may be prescribed by a
doctor on an "off-label" basis.

Although not FDA-approved specifically for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, antidepressants are sometimes used to treat adults
with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Older antidepressants, called tricyclics, sometimes are used because they, like stimulants, affect the brain
chemicals norepinephrine and dopamine. A newer antidepressant, venlafaxine (Effexor), also may be prescribed for its effect on the brain chemical
norepinephrine. And in recent clinical trials, the antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin), which affects the brain chemical dopamine, showed benefits for
adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.17

Adult prescriptions for stimulants and other medications require special considerations. For example, adults often require other medications for physical
problems, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, or for anxiety and depression. Some of these medications may interact badly with stimulants. An
adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should discuss potential medication options with his or her doctor. These and other issues must be
taken into account when a medication is prescribed.

Education and psychotherapy. A professional counselor or therapist can help an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder learn how to organize
his or her life with tools such as a large calendar or date book, lists, reminder notes, and by assigning a special place for keys, bills, and paperwork.
Large tasks can be broken down into more manageable, smaller steps so that completing each part of the task provides a sense of accomplishment.

Psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy, also can help change one's poor self-image by examining the experiences that produced it. The
therapist encourages the adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to adjust to the life changes that come with treatment, such as thinking before
acting, or resisting the urge to take unnecessary risks.

What efforts are under way to improve treatment?
This is an exciting time in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder research. The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain imaging, and behavioral
research is leading to a better understanding of the causes of the disorder, how to prevent it, and how to develop more effective treatments for all age

NIMH has studied attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treatments for school-aged children in a large-scale, long-term study called the Multimodal
Treatment Study of Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (MTA study). NIMH also funded the Preschoolers with attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder Treatment Study (PATS), which involved more than 300 preschoolers who had been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder. The study found that low doses of the stimulant methylphenidate are safe and effective for preschoolers, but the children are more sensitive to
the side effects of the medication, including slower than average growth rates.18 Therefore, preschoolers should be closely monitored while taking
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications.19,20

PATS is also looking at the genes of the preschoolers, to see if specific genes affected how the children responded to methylphenidate. Future results
may help scientists link variations in genes to differences in how people respond to ADHD medications. For now, the study provides valuable insights into
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.21

Other NIMH-sponsored clinical trials on children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are under way. In addition, NIMH-sponsored
scientists continue to look for the biological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and how differences in genes and brain structure and
function may combine with life experiences to produce the disorder.

The major portion of this article is extracted from NIMH website.

For natural remedy for people suffered from attentive deficit hyperactivity disorder, please, click:
natural remedies for attentive deficit hyperactivity
disorder. Research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:
* Fidget and squirm in their seats
* Talk nonstop
* Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
* Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
* Be constantly in motion
* Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.

Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:
* Be very impatient
* Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
* Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
* Often interrupt conversations or others' activities.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Can Be Mistaken for Other Problems
Parents and teachers can miss the fact that children with symptoms of inattention have the disorder because they are often quiet and less likely to act
out. They may sit quietly, seeming to work, but they are often not paying attention to what they are doing. They may get along well with other children,
compared with those with the other subtypes, who tend to have social problems. But children with the inattentive kind of ADHD are not the only ones
whose disorders can be missed. For example, adults may think that children with the hyperactive and impulsive subtypes just have emotional or
disciplinary problems.

What Causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
Scientists are not sure what causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other
illnesses, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at
possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder.

Genes. Inherited from our parents, genes are the "blueprints" for who we are. Results from several international studies of twins show that Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder often runs in families. Researchers are looking at several genes that may make people more likely to develop the
disorder.2,3 Knowing the genes involved may one day help researchers prevent the disorder before symptoms develop. Learning about specific genes
could also lead to better treatments.

Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder who carry a particular version of a certain gene have thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain
associated with attention. This NIMH research showed that the difference was not permanent, however, and as children with this gene grew up, the brain
developed to a normal level of thickness. Their Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms also improved.4

Environmental factors. Studies suggest a potential link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and ADHD in children.5,6 In
addition, preschoolers who are exposed to high levels of lead, which can sometimes be found in plumbing fixtures or paint in old buildings, may have a
higher risk of developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.7

Brain injuries. Children who have suffered a brain injury may show some behaviors similar to those of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. However,
only a small percentage of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have suffered a traumatic brain injury.

Sugar. The idea that refined sugar causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or makes symptoms worse is popular, but more research discounts
this theory than supports it. In one study, researchers gave children foods containing either sugar or a sugar substitute every other day. The children
who received sugar showed no different behavior or learning capabilities than those who received the sugar substitute.8 Another study in which children
were given higher than average amounts of sugar or sugar substitutes showed similar results.9

In another study, children who were considered sugar-sensitive by their mothers were given the sugar substitute aspartame, also known as Nutrasweet.
Although all the children got aspartame, half their mothers were told their children were given sugar, and the other half were told their children were
given aspartame. The mothers who thought their children had gotten sugar rated them as more hyperactive than the other children and were more
critical of their behavior, compared to mothers who thought their children received aspartame. 10

Food additives. Recent British research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food additives like artificial colors or preservatives, and
an increase in activity.11 Research is under way to confirm the findings and to learn more about how food additives may affect hyperactivity.

How is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder diagnosed?
Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels. Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and
struggle to concentrate at one time or another. Sometimes, these normal factors may be mistaken for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms usually appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6, and because symptoms vary from person to
person, the disorder can be hard to diagnose. Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems
constantly "out of control." Often, teachers notice the symptoms first, when a child has trouble following rules, or frequently "spaces out" in the classroom
or on the playground.

No single test can diagnose a child as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to gather information
about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk with the child's pediatrician. Some pediatricians can assess the
child themselves, but many will refer the family to a mental health specialist with experience in childhood mental disorders such as attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder. The pediatrician or mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain
situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Between them, the referring pediatrician and specialist will determine if a child:

* Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions
* Has a middle ear infection that is causing hearing problems
* Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
* Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
* Has any learning disabilities
* Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms
* Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent's job loss.

A specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child's home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and
gather information from the child's parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted.

The specialist also will ask:

* Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child's life?
* Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child's peers?
* Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
* Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?

The specialist pays close attention to the child's behavior during different situations. Some situations are highly structured, some have less structure.
Others would require the child to keep paying attention. Most children with ADHD are better able to control their behaviors in situations where they are
getting individual attention and when they are free to focus on enjoyable activities. These types of situations are less important in the assessment. A
child also may be evaluated to see how he or she acts in social situations, and may be given tests of intellectual ability and academic achievement to see
if he or she has a learning disability.

Finally, if after gathering all this information the child meets the criteria for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, he or she will be diagnosed with the

How is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated?
Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and improving functioning. Treatments include
medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

The most common type of medication used for treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is called a "stimulant." Although it may seem unusual to
treat ADHD with a medication considered a stimulant, it actually has a calming effect on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Many types
of stimulant medications are available. A few other Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder medications are non-stimulants and work differently than
stimulants. For many children, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity and improve their ability to focus,
work, and learn. Medication also may improve physical coordination.

However, a one-size-fits-all approach does not apply for all children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. What works for one child might not work
for another. One child might have side effects with a certain medication, while another child may not. Sometimes several different medications or
dosages must be tried before finding one that works for a particular child. Any child taking medications must be monitored closely and carefully by
caregivers and doctors.

Stimulant medications come in different forms, such as a pill, capsule, liquid, or skin patch. Some medications also come in short-acting, long-acting, or
extended release varieties. In each of these varieties, the active ingredient is the same, but it is released differently in the body. Long-acting or extended
release forms often allow a child to take the medication just once a day before school, so they don't have to make a daily trip to the school nurse for
another dose. Parents and doctors should decide together which medication is best for the child and whether the child needs medication only for school
hours or for evenings and weekends, too.

A list of medications and the approved age for use follows. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be diagnosed and medications prescribed by
M.D.s (usually a psychiatrist) and in some states also by clinical psychologists, psychiatric nurse practitioners, and advanced psychiatric nurse
specialists. Check with your state's licensing agency for specifics.

Trade Name        Generic Name        Approved Age
Adderall        amphetamine        3 and older
Adderall XR        amphetamine (extended release)        6 and older
Concerta        methylphenidate (long acting)        6 and older
Daytrana        methylphenidate patch        6 and older
Desoxyn        methamphetamine hydrochloride        6 and older
Dexedrine        dextroamphetamine        3 and older
Dextrostat        dextroamphetamine        3 and older
Focalin        dexmethylphenidate        6 and older
Focalin XR        dexmethylphenidate (extended release)        6 and older
Metadate ER        methylphenidate (extended release)        6 and older
Metadate CD        methylphenidate (extended release)        6 and older
Methylin        methylphenidate (oral solution and chewable tablets)        6 and older
Ritalin        methylphenidate        6 and older
Ritalin SR        methylphenidate (extended release)        6 and older
Ritalin LA        methylphenidate (long acting)        6 and older
Strattera        atomoxetine        6 and older
Vyvanse        lisdexamfetamine dimesylate        6 and older

*Not all ADHD medications are approved for use in adults.
NOTE: "extended release" means the medication is released gradually so that a controlled amount enters the body over a period of time. "Long acting"
means the medication stays in the body for a long time.

Over time, this list will grow, as researchers continue to develop new medications for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Medication guides for each
of these medications are available from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

What are the side effects of stimulant medications?
The most commonly reported side effects are decreased appetite, sleep problems, anxiety, and irritability. Some children also report mild stomachaches
or headaches. Most side effects are minor and disappear over time or if the dosage level is lowered.

* Decreased appetite. Be sure your child eats healthy meals. If this side effect does not go away, talk to your child's doctor. Also talk to the doctor if you
have concerns about your child's growth or weight gain while he or she is taking this medication.

* Sleep problems. If a child cannot fall asleep, the doctor may prescribe a lower dose of the medication or a shorter-acting form. The doctor might also
suggest giving the medication earlier in the day, or stopping the afternoon or evening dose. Adding a prescription for a low dose of an antidepressant or
a blood pressure medication called clonidine sometimes helps with sleep problems. A consistent sleep routine that includes relaxing elements like warm
milk, soft music, or quiet activities in dim light, may also help.

* Less common side effects. A few children develop sudden, repetitive movements or sounds called tics. These tics may or may not be noticeable.
Changing the medication dosage may make tics go away. Some children also may have a personality change, such as appearing "flat" or without
emotion. Talk with your child's doctor if you see any of these side effects.

Are stimulant medications safe?
Under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe. Stimulants do not make children with ADHD feel high, although some kids report
feeling slightly different or "funny." Although some parents worry that stimulant medications may lead to substance abuse or dependence, there is little
evidence of this.

FDA warning on possible rare side effects
In 2007, the FDA required that all makers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications develop Patient Medication Guides that contain
information about the risks associated with the medications. The guides must alert patients that the medications may lead to possible cardiovascular
(heart and blood) or psychiatric problems. The agency undertook this precaution when a review of data found that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
patients with existing heart conditions had a slightly higher risk of strokes, heart attacks, and/or sudden death when taking the medications.

The review also found a slight increased risk, about 1 in 1,000, for medication-related psychiatric problems, such as hearing voices, having
hallucinations, becoming suspicious for no reason, or becoming manic (an overly high mood), even in patients without a history of psychiatric problems.
The FDA recommends that any treatment plan for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include an initial health history, including family history, and
examination for existing cardiovascular and psychiatric problems.

One ADHD medication, the non-stimulant atomoxetine (Strattera), carries another warning. Studies show that children and teenagers who take
atomoxetine are more likely to have suicidal thoughts than children and teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who do not take it. If your
child is taking atomoxetine, watch his or her behavior carefully. A child may develop serious symptoms suddenly, so it is important to pay attention to
your child's behavior every day. Ask other people who spend a lot of time with your child to tell you if they notice changes in your child's behavior. Call a
doctor right away if your child shows any unusual behavior. While taking atomoxetine, your child should see a doctor often, especially at the beginning of
treatment, and be sure that your child keeps all appointments with his or her doctor.

Do medications cure Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Current medications do not cure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rather, they control the symptoms for as long as they are taken. Medications
can help a child pay attention and complete schoolwork. It is not clear, however, whether medications can help children learn or improve their academic
skills. Adding behavioral therapy, counseling, and practical support can help children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families to
better cope with everyday problems. Research funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has shown that medication works best when
treatment is regularly monitored by the prescribing doctor and the dose is adjusted based on the child's needs.12

Different types of psychotherapy are used for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavioral therapy aims to help a child change his or her behavior.
It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral
therapy also teaches a child how to monitor his or her own behavior. Learning to give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as
controlling anger or thinking before acting, is another goal of behavioral therapy. Parents and teachers also can give positive or negative feedback for
certain behaviors. In addition, clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines can help a child control his or her behavior.

Therapists may teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys, ask for help, or respond to teasing. Learning to read facial
expressions and the tone of voice in others, and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills training.

How can parents help?
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder need guidance and understanding from their parents and teachers to reach their full potential and to
succeed in school. Before a child is diagnosed, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family. Parents and children may need special
help to overcome bad feelings. Mental health professionals can educate parents about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and how it impacts a family.
They also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.

Parenting skills training helps parents learn how to use a system of rewards and consequences to change a child's behavior. Parents are taught to give
immediate and positive feedback for behaviors they want to encourage, and ignore or redirect behaviors they want to discourage. In some cases, the
use of "time-outs" may be used when the child's behavior gets out of control. In a time-out, the child is removed from the upsetting situation and sits
alone for a short time to calm down.

Parents are also encouraged to share a pleasant or relaxing activity with the child, to notice and point out what the child does well, and to praise the
child's strengths and abilities. They may also learn to structure situations in more positive ways. For example, they may restrict the number of playmates
to one or two, so that their child does not become overstimulated. Or, if the child has trouble completing tasks, parents can help their child divide large
tasks into smaller, more manageable steps. Also, parents may benefit from learning stress-management techniques to increase their own ability to deal
with frustration, so that they can respond calmly to their child's behavior.

Sometimes, the whole family may need therapy. Therapists can help family members find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors and to encourage
behavior changes. Finally, support groups help parents and families connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups often meet
regularly to share frustrations and successes, to exchange information about recommended specialists and strategies, and to talk with experts.

Tips to Help Kids Stay Organized and Follow Directions
Schedule. Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Include time for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Keep the
schedule on the refrigerator or on a bulletin board in the kitchen. Write changes on the schedule as far in advance as possible.

Organize everyday items. Have a place for everything, and keep everything in its place. This includes clothing, backpacks, and toys.

Use homework and notebook organizers. Use organizers for school material and supplies. Stress to your child the importance of writing down
assignments and bringing home the necessary books.

Be clear and consistent. Children with ADHD need consistent rules they can understand and follow.

Give praise or rewards when rules are followed. Children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often receive and expect criticism. Look for good
behavior, and praise it.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and into
adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).  According to
CDC, 4.1% of the U.S. adult population is suffered from ADHD and about 41.3% of the cases is considered as severe. [1] According to the U.S. Census
Bureau, the current (March 29, 2012) U.S. population is 313,268,375 [2]. Thus, there are huge number of people in the U.S. are suffered from attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Although empirical evidence supports pharmacological and behavioral treatments, side effects, concerns regarding safety and fears about long-term use
all contribute to families searching for alternative methods of treating the symptoms of ADHD.

Rucklidge and co-workers at University of Canterbury, New Zealand, published a review article on the supplementation, including single ingredients (e.g.,
minerals, vitamins, amino acids and essential fatty acids), botanicals and multi-ingredient formulas in the treatment of ADHD symptoms. In most cases,
evidence is sparse, mixed and lacking information. Of those supplements where they found published studies, the evidence is best for zinc (two positive
randomized, controlled trials); there is mixed evidence for carnitine, pycnogenol and essential fatty acids, and more research is needed before drawing
conclusions about vitamins, magnesium, iron, SAM-e, tryptophan and Ginkgo biloba with ginseng. [1]

The article below highlights an NIMH publications on attentive deficit hyperactivity disorder:
What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through
adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling
behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has three subtypes: (1)
1. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
2. Predominantly inattentive
3. Combined [1] and [2]

The majority of symptoms of [2] are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are
present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. Children with this subtype are less likely to
act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what
they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Treatments can relieve many of the disorder's symptoms, but there is no cure. With treatment, most people with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can be successful in school and lead productive lives. Researchers are developing more
effective treatments and interventions, and using new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.

What are the symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children?
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It is normal for
all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have
symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:
* Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
* Have difficulty focusing on one thing
* Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
* Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
* Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments)
needed to complete tasks or activities
* Not seem to listen when spoken to
* Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
* Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
* Struggle to follow instructions.
What conditions can coexist with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
Some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also have other illnesses or conditions. For example, they may
have one or more of the following:

* A learning disability. A child in preschool with a learning disability may have difficulty understanding certain sounds or
words or have problems expressing himself or herself in words. A school-aged child may struggle with reading, spelling,
writing, and math.

* Oppositional defiant disorder. Kids with this condition, in which a child is overly stubborn or rebellious, often argue with
adults and refuse to obey rules.

* Conduct disorder. This condition includes behaviors in which the child may lie, steal, fight, or bully others. He or she may
destroy property, break into homes, or carry or use weapons. These children or teens are also at a higher risk of using
illegal substances. Kids with conduct disorder are at risk of getting into trouble at school or with the police.

* Anxiety and depression. Treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may help to decrease anxiety or some forms of

* Bipolar disorder. Some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may also have this condition in which extreme
mood swings go from mania (an extremely high elevated mood) to depression in short periods of time.

* Tourette syndrome. Very few children have this brain disorder, but among those who do, many also have ADHD. Some
people with Tourette syndrome have nervous tics and repetitive mannerisms, such as eye blinks, facial twitches, or
grimacing. Others clear their throats, snort, or sniff frequently, or bark out words inappropriately. These behaviors can be
controlled with medication.

ADHD also may coexist with a sleep disorder, bed-wetting, substance abuse, or other disorders or illnesses.

Recognizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and seeking help early will lead to better outcomes for both
affected children and their families.

How can I work with my child’s school?
If you think your child has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or a teacher raises concerns, you may be able to request
that the school conduct an evaluation to determine whether he or she qualifies for special education services.

Start by speaking with your child's teacher, school counselor, or the school's student support team, to begin an evaluation.
Also, each state has a Parent Training and Information Center and a Protection and Advocacy Agency that can help you
get an evaluation. A team of professionals conducts the evaluation using a variety of tools and measures. It will look at all
areas related to the child's disability.

Once your child has been evaluated, he or she has several options, depending on the specific needs. If special education
services are needed and your child is eligible under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the school district must
develop an "individualized education program" specifically for your child within 30 days.

If your child is considered not eligible for special education services—and not all children with attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder are eligible—he or she still can get "free appropriate public education," available to all public-school children with
disabilities under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability.

Transitions can be difficult. Each school year brings a new teacher and new schoolwork, a change that can be especially
hard for a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who needs routine and structure. Consider telling the teachers
that your child has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when he or she starts school or moves to a new class. Additional
support will help your child deal with the transition.

1 DSM-IV-TR workgroup. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Association.

2 Faraone SV, Perlis RH, Doyle AE, Smoller JW, Goralnick JJ, Holmgren MA, Sklar P. Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 2005; 57:1313-1323.

3 Khan SA, Faraone SV. The genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A literature review of 2005. Current Psychiatry Reports, 2006
Oct; 8:393-397.

4 Shaw P, Gornick M, Lerch J, Addington A, Seal J, Greenstein D, Sharp W, Evans A, Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Rapoport JL. Polymorphisms
of the dopamine D4 receptor, clinical outcome and cortical structure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry,
2007 Aug; 64(8):921-931.

5 Linnet KM, Dalsgaard S, Obel C, Wisborg K, Henriksen TB, Rodriguez A, Kotimaa A, Moilanen I, Thomsen PH, Olsen J, Jarvelin MR.
Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors: review of the current evidence.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 2003 Jun; 160(6):1028-1040.

6 Mick E, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Sayer J, Kleinman S. Case-control study of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and maternal smoking,
alcohol use, and drug use during pregnancy. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2002 Apr; 41(4):378-385.

7 Braun J, Kahn RS, Froehlich T, Auinger P, Lanphear BP. Exposures to environmental toxicants and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in
U.S. children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2006 Dec; 114(12):1904-1909.

8 Wolraich M, Milich R, Stumbo P, Schultz F. The effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys. Pediatrics, 1985 Apr;

9 Wolraich ML, Lindgren SD, Stumbo PJ, Stegink LD, Appelbaum MI, Kiritsy MC. Effects of diets high in sucrose or aspartame on the
behavior and cognitive performance of children. New England Journal of Medicine, 1994 Feb 3; 330(5):301-307.

10 Hoover DW, Milich R. Effects of sugar ingestion expectancies on mother-child interaction. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1994;

11 McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok E, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO.
Stevenson J. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised,
double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 2007 Nov 3; 370(9598):1560-1567.

12 The MTA Cooperative Group. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999; 56:1073-1086.

13 Cox DJ, Merkel RL, Moore M, Thorndike F, Muller C, Kovatchev B. Relative benefits of stimulant therapy with OROS methylphenidate
versus mixed amphetamine salts extended release in improving the driving performance of adolescent drivers with
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 2006 Sept; 118(3):e704-e710.

14 U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Legislative Fact Sheets. Traffic Safety Facts, Laws.
Graduated Driver Licensing System. January 2006.

15 Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 2002;

16 Coghill D, Seth S. Osmotic, controlled-release methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opinions
in Pharmacotherapy, 2006 Oct; 7(15):2119-2138.

17 Wilens TE, Haight BR, Horrigan JP, Hudziak JJ, Rosenthal NE, Connor DF, Hampton KD, Richard NE, Modell JG. Bupropion XL in adults
with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Biological Psychiatry, 2005 Apr 1; 57(7):793-801.

18 Swanson J, Greenhill L, Wigal T, Kollins S, Stehli A, Davies M, Chuang S, Vitiello B, Skroballa A, Posner K, Abikoff H, Oatis M, McCracken
J, McGough J, Riddle M, Ghouman J, Cunningham C, Wigal S. Stimulant-related reductions in growth rates in the PATS. Journal of the
Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2006 Nov; 45(11):1304-1313.

19 Greenhill L, Kollins S, Abikoff H, McCracken J, Riddle M, Swanson J, McGough J, Wigal S, Wigal T, Vitiello B, Skroballa A, Posner K,
Ghuman J, Cunningham C, Davies M, Chuang S, Cooper T. Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for
preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2006 Nov;

20 Wigal T, Greenhill L, Chuang S, McGough J, Vitiello B, Skrobala A, Swanson J, Wigal S, Abikoff H, Kollins S, McCracken J, Riddle M,
Posner K, Ghuman J, Davies M, Thorp B, Stehli A. Safety and tolerability of methylphenidate in preschool children with
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2006 Nov; 45(11):1294-1303.

21 McGough J, McCracken J, Swanson J, Riddle M, Greenhill L, Kollins S, Greenhill L, Abikoff H, Davies M, Chuang S, Wigal T, Wigal S,
Posner K, Skroballa A, Kastelic E, Ghouman J, Cunningham C, Shigawa S, Moyzis R, Vitiello B. Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate
response in preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2006 Nov;