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Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire (cardamom, cao guo (草果), bai dou kou (白豆蔻; 草
豆蔻); Fructus Amomi Tsao-ko; Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lem.

Related Names: Amomum cardamomum Linn.(bai dou kou 白豆蔻); Amomum costatum; Roxb.(dou
kou; 豆蔻); Amomum kravanh Pierre ex Gagnep and Amomum compacturn Soland et Maton
(Indonesian bai dou kou)﹐cao dou kou 草豆叩﹐cao kou ren (草蔻仁﹐草叩仁)﹐cao kou (草蔻)。

Amomum tsao-ko can be found in South East Asia. Traditionally, it is used to treat stomach pain,
flatulence, belching, indigestion vomiting, malarial disorders, and drunkenness from alcohol
consumption.

Amomum tsao-ko contains1,8-Cineole (1,8-桉油素), a-pinene (a--蒎烯) and β-pinene (β-蒎烯)
and geraniol (香葉醇). It is believed that a-pinene and β-pinene expells phlegm and inhibits cough.
1,8-Cineole may have calming, pain relieving and asthma inhibiting effects. β-pinenean has strong
antibiotic and anti-inflammation effects; geraniol has strong antibiotic and antifungal effects.

Side effects of Amomum tsao-ko
It is believed that geraniol is toxic at high doses. The lethal dosage for rat is 4.9 g/ kg, while, the
lethal injection dosage for rabbit was 50mg/kg. Prolonged use of smoked cao guo can be
carcinogenic.

Amomum tsao-ko benefits

Amomum tsao-ko benefit- antifungal activities
Moon SS and co-workers from Kongju National University found a methanol extract, containing
bicyclic nonane isotsaokoin, of Amomum tsao-ko possessed of antifungal activity against
Trycophyton mentagrophytes. [1]

Lee KY and co-workers from Seoul National University, Korea isolated 13 compounds from a
methanolic extract of the fruits of AMOMUM TSAO-KO (Zingiberaceae) and all these compounds
significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2 microglial cells at
concentrations ranging from 1 microM to 100 microM. [2]

Amomum tsao-ko benefit- anti-diabetes
Researchers from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology found the polar components of
tsao-ko might be able to lower plasma glucose. [3]

Reference:

[1] Moon SS, Lee JY, Cho SC. Isotsaokoin, an antifungal agent from Amomum tsao-ko. J Nat Prod. 2004 May;67(5):889-91. [2]
Lee KY, Kim SH, Sung SH, Kim YC. Inhibitory constituents of lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in BV2
microglia isolated from Amomum tsao-ko. Planta Med. 2008 Jun;74(8):867-9. Epub 2008 Jun 3. [3] Yu L, Shirai N, Suzuki H,
Hosono T, Nakajima Y, Kajiwara M, Takatori K. Effect of Lipid Extracted from Tsao-ko (Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire)
on Digestive Enzyme Activity, Antioxidant Activity, Plasma and Liver Lipids, and Blood Glucose Levels of Mice. J Nutr Sci
Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Oct;54(5):378-83. [4] http://alternativehealing.org