Rutin is a flavonol glycoside consisting quercetin and rutinose. It is a yellow, tasteless power. Rutin can be found in
buckwheat, asparagus, tomato, orange, carrot, sweet potato, black tea and apple peels. [14, 15] It may benefit
people at risk of arteriosclerosis, high blood pressure and cancers.

Rutin shows benefits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Indian researchers reported that rutin administration to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats decreased
plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin levels. They further demonstrated a protective effects of rutin on the
kidney of STZ-induced diabetic rats via a modulation of metalloproteinase levels in the kidney and a reduction of
plasma glucose levels.  [1,2]

Rutin may have benefits of blood pressure lowering – in vitro studies.

Researchers constricted isolated rat thoracic aortas with phenylephrine and then treated with quercetin and rutin.
They observed that quercetin caused vaso-relaxation of the preconstricted aorta ring with or without endothelium
intact. While,  Rutin also caused vaso-relaxation in pre-constricted endothelium-intact rings, however not in aorta
rings without endothelium. They also found that the vasodilatation effect of quercetin is more potent than rutin. [3]

Rutin inhibited the activation of phospholipase C, followed by inhibition of protein kinase C activity and thromboxane
A(2) formation, thereby leading to inhibition of the phosphorylation of P47 and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization,
finally resulting in inhibition of platelet aggregation. [4,11]

Rutin may have benefit on inflammation.

Indian researchers rendered diabetes in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). After the
injection, they observed a significant increase in the levels of fasting plasma glucose, lipid peroxidative products
(thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides and a significant decrease in plasma insulin,
enzymic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and
nonenzymic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C and E) in liver, kidney and brain.

Oral administration of rutin for a period of 45 days significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose, increased insulin
levels and improved the antioxidant status of diabetic rats by decreasing lipid peroxidative products and increasing
enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Histopathological studies of the liver, kidney and brain showed the protective
role of rutin. [9]

Rutin and harmaline have shown some beneficial protective effects against reflux oesophagitis by the inhibition of
gastric acid secretion, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production (i.e. [interleukin-1beta), and intracellular
calcium mobilization in polymorphonucleocytes in rats. [5]

In an animal study, oral administration of rutin reduced rat paw swelling starting 2 hours after lambda-carrageenan
injection. Lambda-carrageenan is known to cause local oedema. Researchers also found that rutin inhibited
elastase exocytosis and reduced the polymorphonuclear neutrophils chemotaxis to fMet-Leu-Phe significantly. [6]

Orally administered rutin has been shown to ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis of
rats. Researchers found that the rutin was deglycosylated to liberate quercetin in the cecal contents. Quercetin
inhibited an inflammatory signal TNF-alpha-dependent NFkappaB activation dose-proportionally. [7]

Rutin may help arthritis.

The anti-inflammatory activities of three flavonoids were investigated in rats using the Mizushima et al. model of
acute and chronic inflammation. Intraperitoneal administration of rutin, quercetin (flavonols) and hesperidin
(flavanone), given at daily doses equivalent to 80 mg/kg, inhibited both acute and chronic phases of this
experimental model of inflammation. Rutin was the most active in the chronic phase. [16]

Rutin may have the benefits of cutting cancer risks – anti-cancer activities.

Rutin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of  inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinogenesis
via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production according to a study of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-
induced experimental colitis in mice. [8]

In an in vitro study, rutin treatment showed a reduction in growth and invasion index of B16F10 melanoma cells. [13]

Rutin shows heart protection in an animal study.

Subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol to male Wistar rats at an interval of 24 h for two days showed a significant
increase in the activities of serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate
transaminase and alanine transaminase) and a significant decrease in the activities of these enzymes in the heart.
In addition, researchers also noticed a significant increase in lipid peroxidase products such as thiobarbituricacid
reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxide and a significant decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic
antioxidants in the isoproterenol-treated rats. However, pretreatment with rutin to isoproterenol-treated rats orally
for a period of 42 days daily caused a significant antioxidant effects. [10]

In an another study, researchers induced diabetes in rats by streptozotocin and they observed left ventricular
diastolic dysfunction and high myocardial fructose levels after 12 weeks of the study. However, researchers
quercetin and rutin treatment allowed decreased myocardial fructose levels, probably, via its aldose reductase
inhibitory activities. Thus, rutin has cardiac protection activities in diabetic rats.[12]

Rutin may have benefits of cholesterol-lowering effects

It has been observed that rutin reduced the levels of total cholesterol significantly in chicken. [17]

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[1] Kamalakkannan N, et al, The influence of rutin on the extracellular matrix in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney.. J
Pharm Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;58(8):1091-8. [2] Stanley Mainzen Prince P, et al, Rutin improves glucose homeostasis in
streptozotocin diabetic tissues by altering glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2006;20(2):96-102. [3]
Zhou XM, et al, Comparison of vasodilatation effect between quercetin and rutin in the isolated rat thoracic aortaZhejiang Da Xue
Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Jan;35(1):29-33. [4] Sheu JR, et al, Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet activity of rutin, a
glycoside of the flavonol quercetin, in human platelets. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 14;52(14):4414-8. [5] Shin YK, et al, Effects
of rutin and harmaline on rat reflux oesophagitis. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2002 Feb;22(1):47-55. [6] Selloum L, Anti-
inflammatory effect of rutin on rat paw oedema, and on neutrophils chemotaxis and degranulation. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2003 Mar;
54(4):313-8. [7] Kim H, Metabolic and pharmacological properties of rutin, a dietary quercetin glycoside, for treatment of
inflammatory bowel disease. Pharm Res. 2005 Sep;22(9):1499-509. Epub 2005 Aug 24. [8] Kwon KH, et al, Dietary rutin, but not
its aglycone quercetin, ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in mice: attenuation of pro-inflammatory
gene expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Feb 1;69(3):395-406. Epub 2004 Dec 15. [9] Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS. Rutin
improves the antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat tissues. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Jun 20. [10] Karthick M, et
al, Preventive effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid, on lipid peroxides and antioxidants in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in
rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006 May;58(5):701-7. [11] Chen WM, et al, Experimental study on inhibitory effect of rutin against
platelet activation induced by platelet activating factor in rabbitsZhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2002 Apr;22(4):283-5. [12]
Krishna KM, et al, Partial reversal by rutin and quercetin of impaired cardiac function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Can J
Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;83(4):343-55. [13] Martinez Conesa C, et al, Treatment of metastatic melanoma B16F10 by the
flavonoids tangeretin, rutin, and diosmin. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 24;53(17):6791-7. [14] Fabjan N, et al, Tartary
buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) as a source of dietary rutin and quercitrin. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Oct 22;51(22):
6452-5. [15] Wang M. et al, Quantification of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus shoots by LC/MS and HPLC methods. J Agric
Food Chem. 2003 Oct 8;51(21):6132-6. [16] Guardia T, et al, Anti-inflammatory properties of plant flavonoids. Effects of rutin,
quercetin and hesperidin on adjuvant arthritis in rat. Farmaco. 2001 Sep;56(9):683-7. [17] da Silva RR, et la,
Hypocholesterolemic effect of naringin and rutin flavonoidsArch Latinoam Nutr. 2001 Sep;51(3):258-64.
RUTIN HEALTH BENEFITS