The health benefits of
What is limonene?
D-limonene is one of the most common terpenes in nature. It is found in
several citrus oils such as orange, lemon, mandarin, lime, and grapefruit.
What is limonene used for?
D-limonene is listed in the Code of Federal Regulations as generally
recognized as safe (GRAS) for a flavoring agent and can be found in
common food items such as fruit juices, soft drinks, baked goods, ice
cream, and pudding.
Is limonene safe? What are its side effects or adverse effects?
D-limonene is considered to have fairly low toxicity. It has been tested for
carcinogenicity in mice and rats. Although initial results showed d-limonene
increased the incidence of renal tubular tumors in male rats, female rats and
mice in both genders showed no evidence of any tumor.
Whysner J, Williams GM. said "d-Limonene produces tumors only in the
kidneys of male rats in association with hyaline-droplet nephropathy, which
is due to the accumulation of the rat-specific, low molecular weight protein
alpha(2u)-globulin in the P2 segment cells of renal proximal tubules. Human
urine contains no alpha(2u)-globulin and, compared with the male rat, much
less protein and almost no low molecular weight protein." 
What are the potential health benefits of Limonene?
Being a solvent of cholesterol, d-limonene has been used clinically to
dissolve cholesterol-containing gallstones. Because of its gastric acid
neutralizing effect and its support of normal peristalsis, it has also been
used for relief of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux (GERD).
D-limonene has well-established chemopreventive activity against many
types of cancer.
Evidence from a phase I clinical trial demonstrated a partial response in a
patient with breast cancer and stable disease for more than six months in
three patients with colorectal cancer.
SOURCE Sun J. D-Limonene: safety and clinical applications. Altern Med Rev. 2007
 Whysner J, Williams GM. d-limonene mechanistic data and risk assessment: absolute
species-specific cytotoxicity, enhanced cell proliferation, and tumor promotion. Pharmacol Ther.
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