The health benefits of Beta-Cryptoxanthin
Abstract
Beta-Cryptoxanthin is a major source of vitamin A, often second only to beta-carotene, and is present in fruits such as
oranges, tangerines, and papayas. [1] Beta-Cryptoxanthin is a member of xanthophylls, a class of carotenoids. In the
human body, beta-cryptoxanthin is converted to vitamin A. Beta-cryptoxanthin is an oxidant and may help prevent
oxidative damage to DNA. Thus, beta-cryptoxanthin is believed to have health benefits on people at risk of certain
chronic diseases, especially certain kinds of cancers. Anyway, beta-cryptoxanthin is also used as a food colorant in
some countries.

Beta-cryptoxanthin has molar mass of 552.85 g/mol and melting pont of 168 deg. C. In a pure form, beta-cryptoxanthin
appears to be a red crystalline solid. It is freely soluble in chloroform, benzene, pyridine and carbon dissulfide. [7]
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Scientific Evidence - Potential Health Benefits

Cancer
As discussed, beta-cryptoxanthin may benefit people at risk of certain cancers. Researchers found high dose of beta-
cryptoxanthin reduced the colon cancer incidence in a study of F344 rats. [2] In addition, several observational
epidemiologic studies suggest that beta-cryptoxanthin could potentially act as a chemopreventive agent against lung
cancer. [5] Miyazawa K and co-workers at Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan showed dose of 25 ppm  of
beta-cryptoxanthin significantly lowered the occurrence of bladder carcinoma in a mice model. [6]

In a in vitro study, β-cryptoxanthin supplementation restored nicotine-suppressed expression of lung Sirtuin 1, p53, and
RAR-β to that of a control group, and increased survival probability. The present study indicates that β-cryptoxanthin is
potentially a preventive agent against emphysema and lung cancer with SIRT1 as a potential target. [A3]

Cognitive Dysfunction (Age-related)
In a study, mice dosed Beta-cryptoxanthin had higher learning ability. The level of DNA oxidative damage was
significantly lower in the cerebral cortex of mice that ingested β-cryptoxanthin and mandarin than control mice. [A7]

Diabetes
Beta-cryptoxanthin may also benefit people at risk of diabetes. Researchers from Japan found oral administration of
beta-crytoxanthin prevented bone loss in streptozotocin-diabetic and ovariectomized rats. The administration of beta-
cryptoxanthin to normal rats for 14 days caused a significant increase in calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity,
and DNA content in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. [3,4]

Lung Inflammation
In epidemiologic studies, high intake of β-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer,
particularly among smokers. β-Cryptoxanthin at both doses significantly decreased smoke-induced lung squamous
metaplasia and inflammation. β-Cryptoxanthin also substantially reduced smoke-elevated TNFα levels in alveolar,
bronchial, bronchiolar, and bronchial serous/mucous gland epithelial cells and in lung macrophages. Thus, beta-
cryptoxanthin may benefit people at risk of lung inflammation. [A6]

Obesity
Oral administration of β-Cryptoxanthin repressed body weight, abdominal adipose tissue weight, and serum lipid
concentrations on Tsumura Suzuki obese, diabetes mice. β-cryptoxanthin facilitated lipid metabolism in muscle and
reduced adipocyte proliferation and inflammatory response, in the study. [A4] β-cryptoxanthin administration reduced
visceral adipose tissue, body weight, and abdominal circumference in another animal study. [A5]

Periodontal Disease
Periodontal diseases range from simple gum inflammation to serious disease that results in major damage to the soft
tissue and bone that support the teeth. In the worst cases, teeth are lost. β-Cryptoxanthin suppressed
lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclast formation in co-cultures of bone marrow cells and osteoblasts. An osteoclast is a
type of bone cell that resorbs boney tissue, while osteoblasts are cells with single nuclei that synthesize bone. In a
mouse model of periodontitis, β-cryptoxanthin suppressed bone resorption in the mandibular alveolar bone in vitro and
restored alveolar bone loss. [A2] Thus, beta-cryptoxanthin potentially benefits people at risk of periodontal diseases.


_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Potential Side Effects

Drug Interaction
In a vitro study, β-cryptoxanthin weakly inhibited cytochrome P4502C8 (CYP2C8), [A1] CYP2C8 is a member of the
cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. A xenobiotic
is a chemical which is found in an organism but which is not normally produced or expected to be present in it. Based
on this observation, it is unlikely that β-cryptoxanthin alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by CYPs. [A1]
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Source of  β-cryptoxanthin

mandarin oranges
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Reference [1] Wingerath T, Stahl W, Sies H. beta-Cryptoxanthin selectively increases in human chylomicrons upon ingestion of tangerine
concentrate rich in beta-cryptoxanthin esters. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Dec 20;324(2):385-90. [2]  Narisawa T, et al, Chemoprevention
by the oxygenated carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin of N-methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Jpn J Cancer Res.
1999 Oct;90(10):1061-5. [3] Uchiyama S, Yamaguchi M. Oral administration of beta-cryptoxanthin prevents bone loss in streptozotocin-
diabetic rats in vivo. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1766-9. [4] Uchiyama S, Yamaguchi M. Oral administration of beta-cryptoxanthin
prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Int J Mol Med. 2006 Jan;17(1):15-20. [5] Lian F, et al, Beta-cryptoxanthin suppresses the growth
of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells and non-small-cell lung cancer cells and up-regulates retinoic acid receptor beta
expression. Int J Cancer. 2006 Nov 1;119(9):2084-9. [6] Miyazawa K et al, Dietary beta-cryptoxanthin inhibits N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)
nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in male ICR mice. Oncol Rep. 2007 Feb;17(2):297-304. [7] Merck Index, 11th Edition,
2612. [A1] Zheng YF, et al, Inhibitory effects of astaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin on cytochrome P450
enzyme activities. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Sep;59:78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.04.053. [A2] Matsumoto C, et al, The protective effects of
β-cryptoxanthin on inflammatory bone resorption in a mouse experimental model of periodontitis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77(4):
860-2. [A3] skandar AR, et al, β-cryptoxanthin restores nicotine-reduced lung SIRT1 to normal levels and inhibits nicotine-promoted lung
tumorigenesis and emphysema in A/J mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Apr;6(4):309-20 [A4] Takayanagi K. Prevention of Adiposity by
the Oral Administration of β-Cryptoxanthin. Front Neurol. 2011 Nov 23;2:67 [A5] Takayanagi K, et al, Mechanism of visceral fat reduction in
Tsumura Suzuki obese, diabetes (TSOD) mice orally administered β-cryptoxanthin from Satsuma mandarin oranges (Citrus unshiu Marc).
J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Dec 14;59(23):12342-51. [A6] Liu C et al, β-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced
lung inflammation, oxidative damage, and squamous metaplasia in ferrets. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Aug;4(8):1255-66. [A7] Unno K,
et al, Beta-cryptoxanthin, plentiful in Japanese mandarin orange, prevents age-related cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in
senescence-accelerated mouse brain. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):311-7.


This article can not be used as medical advice. Please, consult with your medical doctor for any question or before taking any drug
products and supplements.