Walnut Benefits UPDATED ON 6/29/09
Walnut is a rich source of n-6 (linoleate) and n-3 (linolenate) polyunsaturated fatty acids. It also contains a large amount of
arginine, folate, fiber, tannins, and polyphenols. [1]
What are the potent benefits of Walnut?


Walnut polyphenols have been demonstrated to have antioxidant effects in
various in vitro and in vivo studies. Oral administration of walnut polyphenols
at 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks was found to cause a significant
decrease in the level of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosin in a study of mice
suffered from type 2 diabetes. 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosin is an in vivo
marker of oxidative stress. [3]

Walnuts contain components that may slow cancer growth including omega 3
fatty acids, phytosterols, polyphenols, carotenoids, and melatonin.  [A4]

Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone) is a chemical released by walnut
trees, which can be toxic at various levels to several plant species. [A5]
Researchers from Manipal University have demonstrated the anti-tumor
activities of juglone, a chief constituent of walnut against melanoma cells in an
in vitro study. Induction of oxidative stress, cell membrane damage, and a
clastogenic action contributed the cytotoxic effect of juglone in the study. [A1]

In a study of nude mice implanted with MDA-MB 231 human breast cancers,
consumption of walnut (equivalent to 56 g per day in human) significantly
decreased the tumor cell proliferation, however, it had no effect on apoptosis.

Cholesterol, Triglyceride
A review of 13 studies with 365 participants suggested that diets lasted 4-24
wk with walnuts providing 10-24% of total calories. When compared with
control diets, diets supplemented with walnuts resulted in a significantly
decrease in total cholesterol and in LDL-cholesterol concentrations but not
HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. [A2] However, a double-blind case-control
study of 60 patients suffered with high lipid profiles demonstrated that intake
of 3 g of walnut oil daily for 45 days could decrease triglyceride level by 19-
33%. [A8] In addition, an extract from walnuts reduced liver weight and liver
and serum triglyceride in a study of mice fed with high fat diet. The triglyceride
lowering effect of this walnut extract may be due to the enhancement of
peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in the liver. Tellimagrandin I, a
polyphenolic constituent of walnut, may contribute this activity. [A3]

Liver Demage
A single oral administration of polyphenol-rich fraction of walnut (200 mg/kg)
significantly suppressed serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) elevation in liver injury induced by
carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4), but not the injury induced by d-galactosamine.
While the walnut constituent- telliamgrandin I completely suppressed both CCl
4- and d-galactosamine -induced cell damage. [A6]

Walnut has been demonstrated as a part of heart-healthy diet; it has been
shown to lower the blood cholesterol levels in a few human trials [1]. In some
of these studies, a dose response-related inverse association of the coronary
heart disease risk and frequent daily consumption of small walnut amounts
was also observed. [1]

The cardioprotective effect of nut intake is beyond cholesterol lowering.
Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat in a Mediterranean diet also
improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic
subjects. [5]

In a pilot study, administration of 20 g/day of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.)
for 8 weeks decreased plasma triglyceride concentration by 17%.  In another
study of 60 hyperlipidemic subjects, subjects receiving walnut oil (3 g/day, for
45 days) had plasma triglyceride levels decreased by 19-33%. [6]

Fibrillar amyloid beta-protein (ABETA) is the principal component of amyloid
plaques in the brains of patients suffered from Alzheimer's disease.
Researchers from New York found walnut extract was able to inhibit ABETA
fibril formation in a concentration/time dependent manner and defibrillize
Abeta preformed fibrils. Based on their study, walnut may reduce the risk or
delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease by maintaining ABETA in the soluble
form. Its anti-amyloidogenic activities are probably related to its polyphenolic
compounds, such as the flavonoids. [2]

Walnuts were found to play a significant role in producing a more favorable
fatty acid intake in a low fat diet for the management of type 2 diabetes
mellitus in a study using 38 adults (14 females, 24 males) diagnosed with type
2 diabetes mellitus in the previous 2 years and not on insulin therapy. [4]

SIDE EFFECT??-->You may gain weight by eating walnut.
Walnut is a high-energy food, regular consumption of walnut can lead to
weight gain but not as much as expected. [A7]

REFERENCES [1] Feldman EB et al, The scientific evidence for a beneficial health
relationship between walnuts and coronary heart disease. J Nutr. 2002 May;132(5):1062S-
1101S [2] Chauhan N et al, Walnut extract inhibits the fibrillization of amyloid beta-protein,
and also defibrillizes its preformed fibrils. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2004 Aug;1(3):183-8.  3.
Fukuda T, Effect of the walnut polyphenol fraction on oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes
mice. Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):251-3. 4. Tapsell A et al. Dietary advice inclusive of walnut
supplementation assures adequate intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fats in the dietary
management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S128. 5.
Ros E et al, A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects:
a randomized crossover trial. Circulation. 2004 Apr 6;109(13):1609-14. Epub 2004 Mar 22.
6. Zibaeenezhad MJ et al, Antihypertriglyceridemic effect of walnut oil. Angiology. 2003 Jul-

[S1] Recall -- Firm Press Release City Baking LLC FDA Website 06/27/2009 [S2]
Sordet C, Culerrier R, Granier C, Rancé F, Didier A, Barre A, Rougé P. Expression of Jug r
1, the 2S albumin allergen from walnut (Juglans regia), as a correctly folded and functional
recombinant protein. Peptides. 2009 Jul;30(7):1213-21. Epub 2009 Mar 25. [S3] Wallowitz
M, Peterson WR, Uratsu S, Comstock SS, Dandekar AM, Teuber SS.Jug r 4, a legumin
group food allergen from walnut (Juglans regia Cv. Chandler). J Agric Food Chem. 2006
Oct 18;54(21):8369-75.Click here to read [A1] Kiran Aithal B, Sunilkumar MR,
Nageshwarrao B, Udupa N, Satishrao BS.Juglone, a naphthoquinone from walnut, exerts
cytotoxic and genotoxic effects against cultured melanoma tumor cells. Cell Biol Int. 2009
Jun 22. [2] Banel DK, Hu FB. Effects of walnut consumption on blood lipids and other
cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009
Jul;90(1):56-63. Epub 2009 May 20. [A3] Shimoda H, Tanaka J, Kikuchi M, Fukuda T, Ito H,
Hatano T, Yoshida T. Effect of Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Walnut on Diet-Induced
Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice via Enhancement of Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver. J Agric
Food Chem. 2009 Mar 11;57(5):1786-1792. [A4] Hardman WE, Ion G. Suppression of
implanted MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer growth in nude mice by dietary walnut. Nutr
Cancer. 2008;60(5):666-74. [A5] von Kiparski GR, Lee LS, Gillespie AR. Occurrence and
fate of the phytotoxin juglone in alley soils under black walnut trees. J Environ Qual. 2007
Apr 5;36(3):709-17. Print 2007 May-Jun. [A6] Shimoda H, Tanaka J, Kikuchi M, Fukuda T, Ito
H, Hatano T, Yoshida T. Walnut polyphenols prevent liver damage induced by carbon
tetrachloride and d-galactosamine: hepatoprotective hydrolyzable tannins in the kernel
pellicles of walnut. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 25;56(12):4444-9. Epub 2008 May 22.
[A7] Sabaté J, Cordero-Macintyre Z, Siapco G, Torabian S, Haddad E. Does regular walnut
consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):859-64. [A8] Zibaeenezhad
MJ, Rezaiezadeh M, Mowla A, Ayatollahi SM, Panjehshahin MR. Antihypertriglyceridemic
effect of walnut oil. Angiology. 2003 Jul-Aug;54(4):411-4.
June 27, 2009 – City Baking LLC, of Long island City, NY is recalling 781
individually wrapped City Baking brand Apple Crumb Cakes, because they
contain Walnuts, which were inadvertently omitted from the label. People who
have an allergy or severe sensitivity to Walnuts run the risk of serious side effects
or life threatening illness if they consume these products. [S1]

What causes the unwanted side effect-allergy of walnut?
Walnut 2S albumin, a vicilin-like protein, and a lipid transfer protein allergen [S2,
Discuss with your doctor before taking any alternative medicine. This article is for
reference only, it is not a medical advice. All rights reserved. Do not copy this article to
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