POTATO HEALTH BENEFITS, NUTRITION VALUES               July 31 2013
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POTATO HEALTH BENEFITS

ANTI-OXIDATIVE ACTIVITIES
The antioxidative activities of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato have been  demonstrated. [2]

The correlation of potato intake and cancer occurrence
In a study of 490,000 middle-aged Americans, researchers found that dietary patterns characterized by a low
frequency of meat and potato consumption
and frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and fat-reduced foods
are consistent with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer. [3]

A study showed that the cytotoxic activity of potato aspartic proteases induced apoptosis on Jurkat T cells after a
short time of incubation in a dose-dependent manner. [1] Another study showed the anti-cancer activities of wild
potato extracts on the human HT-29 colon and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines in vitro [2] The cytotoxic activities of
potato extract/ anthocyanin fractions in cancer cells were probably due to activation of caspase-independent
apoptosis. [5 Potato extracts were also found to inhibit the proliferation of human mammalian cancer (MCF-7) cells in
a dose-dependent manner. [4] Thus, certain potato ingredients or preparations may benefit people at risk of cancers.

CHOLESTEROL
Potato was demonstrated to lower serum cholesterol. [3] In a particular study, feeding rats a potato-enriched diet for 3
weeks led to a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in plasma and cholesterol level in liver.
Antioxidant status was also improved by potato consumption. [B5] Intake of potato may not raise the cholesterol but it
is unclear if it benefits people at risk of diabetes and high triglyceride. Please, review the section of potato side effects.
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Potato Side Effects

The average glycemic index for a regular serving of baked russet potato is 111, and that for a boiled white potato is
82. [B1] Glycemic index offers information about how foods affect blood sugar and insulin. The lower a food's glycemic
index, the less it affects blood sugar and insulin levels. People at risk of diabetes, high triglycerides are often
suggested to avoid high
glycemic index food. A study of 4774 subjects demonstrates a strong association between
potato consumption and diabetes mellitus, high fasting blood sugar level and low serum high density lipoprotein level.
[B2] Another study of 84,555 women also suggests that potato and French fry consumption were both positively
associated with risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age and dietary and nondietary factors. The study also
found a more pronounced association between potato consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in obese women. [B3]

A study shows that a pattern of high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and
low intake of local foods was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa, and with increased
serum triglyceride levels. [B4]

In addition to putting people at risk of
diabetes, obesity, etc., eating potato may have some other side effects.
Potato-lovers should discuss with their medical doctors on the side effects of potatoes.
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REFERENCE

A1 Pandey M et al, Diet and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study Eur J Cancer Prev. 2002 Aug;11(4):365-8.
2. Antioxidative activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato, Ipomoera batatas cultivar Ayamurasaki. Biosci
Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 May;69(5):979-88.
3. Cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean, potato and rice proteins depend on their low methionine contents in rats
fed a cholesterol-free purified diet. J Nutr. 1997 Mar;127(3):470-7.
4. Lund ED Cholesterol binding capacity of fiber from tropical fruits and vegetables. Lipids. 1984 Feb;19(2):85-90.

Reference for the section on "Does potato benefit people at risk of cancer?"
[1] Mendieta JR, Fimognari C, Daleo GR, Hrelia P, Guevara MG. Cytotoxic effect of potato aspartic proteases (StAPs)
on Jurkat T cells. Fitoterapia. 2009 Oct 13. [2] Nzaramba MN, Reddivari L, Bamberg JB, Miller JC. Antiproliferative
activity and cytotoxicity of Solanum jamesii tuber extracts on human colon and prostate cancer cells in vitro. J Agric
Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8308-15. [3] Flood A, Rastogi T, Wirfält E, Mitrou PN, Reedy J, Subar AF, Kipnis V,
Mouw T, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann M, Schatzkin A. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal
cancer among middle-aged Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):176-84. [4] Leo L, Leone A, Longo C, Lombardi
DA, Raimo F, Zacheo G. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in "early potatoes". J Agric Food Chem. 2008
Jun 11;56(11):4154-63. Epub 2008 May 14. [5] Reddivari L, Vanamala J, Chintharlapalli S, Safe SH, Miller JC Jr.
Anthocyanin fraction from potato extracts is cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells through activation of
caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Oct;28(10):2227-35. Epub 2007 May
23. [6] Huang GJ, Sheu MJ, Chen HJ, Chang YS, Lin YH. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in NB4
promyelocytic leukemia cells by trypsin inhibitor from sweet potato storage roots. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Apr
4;55(7):2548-53. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [7] Rabah IO, Hou DX, Komine S, Fujii M. Potential chemopreventive properties of
extract from baked sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. Cv. Koganesengan). J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Nov
17;52(23):7152-7.


[B1] Harvard Health Publications, online, July 2013. [B2] Khosravi-Boroujeni H, et al, Potato consumption and
cardiovascular disease risk factors among Iranian population. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Dec;63(8):913-20  [B3] Halton
TL et al, Potato and french fry consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006
Feb;83(2):284-90. [B4] DiBello JR et al, Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans. J
Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1933-43 [B5] Robert L et al, Entire potato consumption improves lipid metabolism and
antioxidant status in cholesterol-fed rat. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Aug;45(5):267-74.
Introduction

In 18th century, potatoes were introduced to North America  by Irish immigrants, but, their origin actually is South
America. Potatoes were first cultivated in the Andes Mountains, today, many kinds of potatoes are seen in markets. The
most popular ones are the russet, round white, and the red potato. Potatoes are tough and durable, store well, and
have impressive nutrition values. It is a rich source of fiber,
potassium and vitamin C. Like other fruits and vegetables,
potatoes are a low calorie food and are free of fat, cholesterol, and sodium. However, the leaves and stems of a potato
plant are poisonous and may cause illness when ingested.

Potatoes are grown across the United States and are available year round. Store potatoes in a cool, dry place. Sunlight
can cause the skin to turn green; if this occurs the skin must then be peeled off before consuming. Most of the nutrients
are contained right below the skin, so avoid peeling when possible. Besides fresh potatoes, other forms are often
available as well, including refrigerated pre-cut fresh potatoes, frozen potatoes, canned potatoes and dehydrated
potatoes When choosing potatoes, be sure they are firm, smooth, and the color they are supposed to be. Softness, a
green tinge, or wrinkly skin may indicate a potato that is past its prime.

Potatoes should be thoroughly washed with clean tap water and scrubbed lightly before preparation. Any sprouts or
eyes growing from the potato should be cut out. The skin can be removed or left on depending on use. Common
methods of preparation include boiling, baking, microwaving, mashing, frying and grilling. Consuming baked and grilled
potatoes with the skin left on provides the most nutrients.

Potato has several varieties, the popular ones are Russet (Round White), Long Whit (Fingerling), Red Skinne (New) and
Blue / Purple Skinned (Yellow Flesh).
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Nutrition Facts:
Russet Potato
Serving Size
1 potato (200g)
Amount Per Serving
 
Calories  
140  
Total Fat  
0 g
Cholesterol    
0 mg
Sodium
10 mg
Total Carbohydrate
31 g
Dietary Fiber  
5 g
Sugars
2 g
Protein
3 g
Also contains
Vitamin C, Calcium and Iron.