The aerial parts of Passion Flower have been believed to benefit various conditions such as insomnia, anxiety and gastrointestinal
disturbance. Passion Flower is generally considered to be a safe herb with limited side effects. However, adverse events have been
reported in the past.
Passion Flower may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding and liver damage. Users should avoid using Passion Flower together
with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, hypnotics, blood-thinning agents, and tyramine/tryptophan.
What are the active ingredients of Passion-flower?
Passiflora incarnata L. has isovitexin as one of the major flavonoids. The highest concentration of isovitexin occurs between pre-flowering and flowering
stages. Passiflora incarnata has four major C-glycosidic flavonoids and they are schaftoside, isoschaftoside, isovetexin-2''-O-glucopyranoside and
isoorientin-2''-O-glucopyranoside.  Its leaves contain the largest accumulation of flavonids. 
What are the potent health benefits of Passion-flower?
Researchers from Universite de Metz, France, demonstrated the anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts of the aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata L.
(Passion-flower) and its indole alkaloids and flavonoids in a study of mice.  Some other also showed similar effects of passion flower extract on
anxiety in animals. [9,10]
A tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety (BZF) recently isolated from the methanol extract of aerial parts of the plant Passiflora incarnata Linneaus had
exhibited encouraging results in countering the dependence produced by addiction-prone substances like morphine, nicotine, cannabinoids
and ethyl alcohol, during the studies performed by the researchers. [5,11] There is always the option to attend and seek the assistance of drug rehab
facilities as well.
Researchers from Panjab University, India suggested the potential benefits of the passion flower on asthma. They treated acetylcholine chloride
(Ach)-induced-bronchospasm in guinea-pigs with passion flower extracts at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. After 7-day treatment regimen, they noted
a significant prevention of dyspnoea-related-convulsions in animals. 
Researchers from Panjab University, India, suggest that a benzoflavone moiety (BZF) extracted from passion flower may have value in treating nicotine
addiction. Those mice treated with the two highest doses of BZF,in combination with nicotine showed significantly fewer nicotine-abstinence withdrawal
jumps and normal ambulatory behavior. BZF treatment also prevented weight loss and resulted in normal performance in a swimming endurance test,
which may be a measure of stress and/or depression. Similarly, acute administration of a single 20 mg/kg dose of BZF prevented some of the
nicotine-withdrawal effects; lower doses were almost inert. 
Excessive long term consumption of alcohol and nicotine have serious detrimental effects upon the libido, fertility, and sperm count in male species. In
an animal study, Indian researchers found that BZF speeds up the restoration of sexuality in rats upon cessation of the administration of substances
like alcohol, nicotine and alcohol-nicotine combinations, which have severe detrimental effects upon male sexuality, fertility and vigour. BZF, the
strongest inhibitor of aromatase enzyme, when administered concurrently with substances like alcohol and nicotine restores sexual virility, libido and
vigour in male rats by maintaining the blood-testosterone levels to be high. 
What are the potent side effects of Passion-flower?
Low dose of passion flower is probably safe. A 34-year-old female developed severe nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, prolonged QTc, and episodes of
nonsustained ventricular tachycardia following self-administration of a herbal remedy, Passiflora incarnata L., at therapeutic doses. 
 Menghini A, Mancini LA. TLC determination of flavonoid accumulation in clonal populations of Passiflora incarnata L. Pharmacol Res Commun. 1988 Dec;20 Suppl 5:113-6.  Li QM, et al,
Mass spectral characterization of C-glycosidic flavonoids isolated from a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata). J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):435-46.  Soulimani R, et la, Behavioural
effects of Passiflora incarnata L. and its indole alkaloid and flavonoid derivatives and maltol in the mouse. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jun;57(1):11-20.  Fisher AA, et al, Toxicity of Passiflora
incarnata L. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000;38(1):63-6.  Dhawan K, et al, Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata
Linneaus: a non-habit forming anxiolytic. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2003 May-Aug;6(2):215-22.  Dhawan K, et al, Antiasthmatic activity of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata.
Phytother Res. 2003 Aug;17(7):821-2.  Dhawan K, et al, Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. Addict Biol. 2002 Oct;7(4):435-41. 
Dhawan K, et al, Prevention of chronic alcohol and nicotine-induced azospermia, sterility and decreased libido, by a novel tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linneaus
in healthy male rats. Life Sci. 2002 Nov 15;71(26):3059-69.  Dhawan K, et al, Anxiolytic activity of aerial and underground parts of Passiflora incarnata. Fitoterapia. 2001 Dec;72(8):922-6. 
Dhawan K, et al, Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):239-44. 
Dhawan K, et al, Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice: a possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J
Pharm Pharmacol. 2002 Jun;54(6):875-81.
Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) Health Benefits and Side Effects
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