Garcinia Cambogia is a subtropical species of Garcinia, found in Southeast Asia. It looks like a small pumpkin, but it is green to pale yellow in color. Garcinia has been used in the preparation of curries. The dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, also known as Malabar tamarind, is a unique source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), which exhibits a distinct sour taste and has been safely used for centuries in Southeastern Asia to make meals more filling.  Garcinia extract has been used as anti-obesity agent. In cell studies, Garcinia extract has been shown to inhibit the cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes.  Consequently, Guarcinia extract is promoted as health supplement for weight loss, though clinical studies are needed. _____________________________________________________________________________________________
Potential Health Benefits
Alcohol-induced Liver Conditions Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. Shivashankara AR and colleagues at Father Muller Medical College, india, report that Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind) may benefit people at risk of such conditions by its antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. 
Ironically, there is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia.
Antioxidative Activities Garcinol and guttiferone K extracted from Garcinia cambogia have some protective effects against lipid and protein oxidation, based on an in vitro study. [Platelets. 2009 Nov;20(7):487-92.]
Cholesterol and Weight Management  Ten weeks of Garcinia cambogia extract supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet.  Another study showed that a dietary supplement with L-carnitine (600 mg/day) and Garcinia cambogia extract (500 mg/day as hydroxycitric acid) significantly improved the level of lipid peroxides (-12.8%), otherwise, Garcinia cambogia extract did not show dietary efficacy in the study.  However, another clinical study of 60 subjects shows that calcium-potassium salt of hydroxycitric acid derived from Garcinia cambogia (Super CitriMax) may benefit people at risk of high cholesterol. Subjects were given a 2,000 kcal diet/day, participated in a 30 min walking exercise program 5 days/week and given an oral dose of placebo or 4666.7 mg Super CitriMax (providing 2,800 mg hydroxycitric acid) in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals, At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4% and 5.2%, respectively. Food intake, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced. No significant side effects were reported. 
Note, the third study has a diet restriction (2000 kcal diet/day) while the diet in the first study is habitual. The preparation and doses of the Garcinia cambogia extracts are all different. Thus, the method of preparation, dose and diet involved have a significant impact on the "health benefits (clinical efficacy)" of Garcinia cambogia extract.
Hydroxycitric acid is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. 
Recently, researchers found low-dose oral Super Citrimax altered the body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile of Sprague-Dawley rats.  Super Citrimax may be able to promote fat oxidation, enhance serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalize lipid profiles, and lowes serum leptin levels in obese subjects. or in hematology, clinical chemistry, and histopathology.  But, more studies are needed to have a clear picture on this calcium-potassium salt of hydroxcitric acid.
Colitis Garcinia administration to colitic rats significantly improved the macroscopic damage and caused substantial reductions in increases in MPO activity, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, garcinia extract treatment was able to reduce PGE(2) and IL-1beta colonic levels. Thus, Garcinia cambogia may benefit people at risk of colitis. [Phytother Res. 2009 Mar;23(3):324-9.]
Hypertension Rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed increased urine output when compared to controls.  Getting rid of excess salt and fluid helps lower blood pressure and can make it easier for the heart to pump. Thus, Garcinia Cambogia may benefit people at risk of high blood pressure.
Caution: Most studies were conducted in animals, it is unclear if the results can be applied to human subjects.
Garcinia Cambogia did not show serious side effects in certain animal studies. A study of rats show the treatment of HCA, an extract from Garcinia cambogia, over a period of 90 days results in a reduction in body weight, but did not cause any side effects on hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, or histopathological changes.  In another study of rats, the administration of HCA-SX (dosages up to 2500 mg/kg/day) for a period of 90 days caused a significant decrease in body weight and reduction in feed consumption without any serious side effects. 
However, in a study of male Zucker obese rats, high dosages of Garcinia cambogia extracts caused potent testicular atrophy and toxicity. And so, there is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. [as reported in the section of alcohol-induced liver conditions] Thus, users must discuss with their medical officers on the potential benefits and side effects of Garcinia Cambogia before use.
Rapha diet® preparation contains silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract. In a study, Male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain, while, Rapha diet reduced the increased body weight gain induced by the intake of the HFD. [Kim J. et al, Lab Anim Res. 2012 Dec;28(4):265-71] It is unclear how Rapha diet benefits human on excessive weight gain.
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