Eurycoma Longfolia Jack,  Tongkat Ali, BENEFITS
Eurycoma Longfolia Jack Review

Taxon: Eurycoma longifolia Jack;  Genus: Eurycoma;  Family: Simaroubaceae.

Eurycoma longifolia is an unbranched tree or shrub up to about 8 m tall and 15 cm diameter, or with a few upright branches, each crowned by an
umbrella-like rosette of leaves. Eurycoma longigolia is native throughout East South Asia. It grows on well-drained sandy soils. In Malaysia,
Eurycoma longifolia, known as 'Tongkat Ali' and "Malaysian ginseng", is a popular local medicinal plant that possess a lot of medicinal benefits as
claimed traditionally, especially in the treatment of malaria. The claimed benefits have been proven scientifically on isolated compounds from the
plant. [1] In vitro studies also suggest plant's antiulcer, antipyretic, anti-cancer and aphrodisiac activities.

Eurycoma Longfolia Jack Composition
According to DRUGS.com, Eurycoma Longfolia Jack contains quassinoids, squalene derivatives, biphenylneolignans, tirucallane-type triterpenes,
canthine-6-1, and beta-carboline alkaloids.
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SOURCE:
1. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program

Reference
[1] Mohd Ridzuan MA et al, Eurycoma longifolia extract-artemisinin combination: parasitemia suppression of
Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice. Trop Biomed. 2007 Jun;24(1):111-8. [2] Ang HH, et al, Effects of Eurycoma longifolia
Jack on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):590-3. [3] Ang HH et al, Studies on the
anxiolytic activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack roots in mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;79(4):497-500. [4] Tee TT et al,
Induction of apoptosis by Eurycoma longifolia jack extracts. Anticancer Res. 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13. [5] Miyake
K, et al, Cytotoxic activity of quassinoids from Eurycoma longifolia. Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Jul;5(7):1009-12. [6] Wong
PF, et al, Eurycomanone suppresses expression of lung cancer cell tumor markers, prohibitin, annexin 1 and
endoplasmic reticulum protein 28. Phytomedicine. 2011 Sep 6 [7] Husen R, et al, Screening for antihyperglycaemic
activity in several local herbs of Malaysia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):205-8. [8] Mohd Ridzuan MA, et al,
Eurycoma longifolia extract-artemisinin combination: parasitemia suppression of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice. Trop
Biomed. 2007 Jun;24(1):111-8. [9] Chiou WF, et al, 9-Hydroxycanthin-6-One Induces Penile Erection and Delays
Ejaculation. J Sex Med. 2011 May 13. [10] Tambi MI, et al, Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia,
Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism? Andrologia. 2011 Jun 15. [11]
Shuid AN, et al, The anti-osteoporotic effect of Eurycoma Longifolia in aged orchidectomised rat model. Aging Male.
2011 Sep;14(3):150-4. [12] Wahab NA, et al, The effect of eurycoma longifolia Jack on spermatogenesis in
estrogen-treated rats. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(1):93-8. [13] Chan KL, et al, The effect of Eurycoma longifolia on
sperm quality of male rats. Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Oct;4(10):1331-6. [14] Zanoli P, et al, Influence of Eurycoma
longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Nov
12;126(2):308-13.
Eurycoma longifolia Jack Health Benefits

Anxiety
The anxiolytic effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack roots was observed in mice. The results obtained in the study were
found to be consistent with anxiolytic effect produced by diazepam. Hence, it is believed that Eurycoma Longifolia Jack
root extract may benefit people suffered from anxiety disorder or at anxiety states. [3]

Cancers
An Eurycoma longifolia jack extract exhibited a high cytotoxic activity towards a human breast cancer cell line- MCF-7,  
and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A. [4]

Twenty-four quassinoids isolated from Eurycoma longifolia Jack were investigated for their cytotoxicity against three
murine cell lines [colon 26-L5 carcinoma, B16-BL6 melanoma, Lewis lung carcinoma and a human lung A549
adenocarcinoma cell line. Among the tested compounds, eurycomalactone (9) displayed the most potent activity
against all the tested cell lines. These activities were comparable to clinically used anticancer agent doxorubicin. [5
Eurycomanone inhibited A549 lung cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging
from 5 to 20μg/ml. The anti-proliferative effects were not fully reversible following the removal of eurycomanone, in
which 30% of cell inhibition still remained. [6] Thus, certain Eurycoma longifolia Jack extracts and active ingredients
may have benefits on animals at risk of certain types of cancers.

Diabetes
In the administration of Eurycoma longifolia aqueous extracts, positive results in hyperglyacaemic rats were only
obtained when 150 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract was used. In normoglycaemic rats, no significant
reduction was noted for the administration of Eurycoma longifolia aqueous extracts.  [7] Though Eurycoma longifolia
has been promoted to be a herb for diabetes, more studies are needed to support this benefit claim.

Infections
Combination treatment of the standardized Eurycoma longifolia root extract with artemisinin suppressed P. yoelii
infection in the experimental mice. The 4 day suppressive test showed that Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract
(root) suppressed the parasitemia of P. yoelii-infected mice as dose dependent manner (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW) by
oral and subcutaneous treatment. By oral administration, combination of Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract
(root) at 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW each with artemisinin respectively showed a significant increase in the parasitemia
suppression to 63, 67 and 80 percent as compared to artemisinin single treatment (31%). Using subcutaneous
administration, at 10 mg/kg BW of Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract (root) in combination with 1.7 mg/kg BW of
artemisinin gave a suppression of 80% of infection. This study showed that combination treatment of Eurycoma
longifolia standardized extract (root) with artemisinin gives a promising potential benefit on people suffered from such
infection. [8]

Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis in elderly men is becoming an important health issue with the aging society. Elderly men with androgen
deficiency are exposed to osteoporosis and can be treated with testosterone replacement. In this study, Eurycoma
longifolia, a plant with androgenic effects, was supplemented to an androgen-deficient osteoporotic aged rat as
alternative to testosterone. Both testosterone replacement and Eurycoma Longifolia supplementation to
orchidectomised rats were able to maintain the bone calcium level, with the former showing better effects. As a
conclusion, Eurycoma Longifolia prevented bone calcium loss in orchidectomised rats and therefore has the potential
to be used as an alternative treatment for androgen deficient osteoporosis. Thus, Eurycoma Longifolia may benefit
people at risk of osteoporosis.


Sexual Qualities
The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the sexual qualities of middle aged male rats after dosing them
with dosage of 0.5 g/kg of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Results showed than Eurycoma longifolia Jack
enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats by decreasing their hesitation time as compared to controls
with various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Besides these, there was a transient increase in the % of the male
rats responding to the right choice after chronic administration of 0.5 g/kg Eurycoma longifolia Jack, with more than
50% of the male rats scored right choice after 2 weeks post-treatment and the effect was more prominent at the
dosage of the observation period. Hence, this study shows that Eurycoma longifolia Jack may benefit the middle aged
male rats with respect to sexual qualities. Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an aphrodisiac, in this sense. [2]

Erection
Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Simaroubaceae) has the reputation as a male aphrodisiac because it is claimed to increase
virility and sexual prowess. Researchers found that 9-HC-6-one might be the active component that contributed to the
aphrodisiac effect of Eurycoma longifolia by antagonizing the smooth muscle tone of rat corpus cavemosum as well as
seminal vesicle probably through interfering with Ca(2+) mobilization. [9] Thus, Eurycoma longifolia Jack may have
benefits of helping erection.

Testosterone Boosting
In a study, 76 of 320 patients suffering from late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) were given 200 mg of a standardised
water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia for 1 month. The Ageing Males' Symptoms (AMS) according to the
standardised rating scale and the serum testosterone concentration were taken. Results show that treatment of LOH
patients with this Eurycoma longifolia extract significantly improved the AMS score as well as the serum testosterone
concentration. While before treatment only 10.5% of the patients did not show any complaint according to the AMS
scale and 35.5% had normal testosterone levels, after the completed treatment 71.7% and 90.8% of the patients
showed normal values, respectively. Thus, Eurycoma longifolia extract appears to benefit users in overcoming the
symptoms of LOH and for the management of hypogonadism. [10]

In another study, Eurycoma longifolia Jack was able to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone
production and spermatogenesis in estrogen-treated male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four
groups of six rats each. Group A (control) was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given
Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Group B was treated with Eurycoma longifolia Jack (8 mg/kg body weight) orally. After
fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell
counts. Rats that were treated with Eurycoma longifolia Jack alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and
sperm motility. [12] It was also found that Eurycoma longifolia root improved sexual performance but not motivation in
sluggish rats after acute or subacute administration. The effect could be mainly ascribed to increased testosterone
levels. [14]

Sperm Count
In a study, the low count, poor motility and abnormal morphology of the spermatozoa induced by the A. paniculata
fraction were significantly reversed by the standardized MeOH extract of Eurycoma longifolia. The plasma testosterone
level of the rats treated with the standardized MeOH Eurycoma longifolia extract at 200 mg/kg was significantly
increased when compared with that of the control and infertile animals. The spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubules
and the Leydig cells appeared normal. Testosterone level was significantly higher in the testes than in the plasma after
30 days of oral treatment with the standardized MeOH Eurycoma longifolia extract. Interestingly, eurycomanone (2)
alone was detected in the rat testis homogenates by HPLC-UV and confirmed by LC/MS, and may have contributed
towards the improvement of sperm quality. [13]

Ulcer
It is believe Eurycoma Longifolia may benefit people suffered from ulcer, but the scientific evidence is insufficient.
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Eurycoma Longifolia Jack Side Effects

All supplements have side effects. Eurycoma Longifolia Jack have not been studied thoroughly in clinical research. Its
side effects are unclear.
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Eurycoma Longifolia Dosage
High doses of Eurycoma Longifolia have been used in the animal studies, e.g. dosage of 200 mg/kg used in the sperm
count study, dosage of 0.5 g/kg used in the sexual quality study. It is not sure if this dosage range is safe for human or
not. Further, there is variety of the extraction, studies have shown that the result is extraction-method dependent.
Thus, same doses from different sources may have different effects on our body, it they have different extraction
method for Eurycoma Longifolia.
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Discuss with your doctor before taking any alternative medicine. This article is for
reference only, it is not a medical advice. All rights reserved. Do not copy this article to
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