Fish oil benefits, fish oil side effects, fish oil dosage, fish oil supplements
updated on November 21, 2011   zhion@zhion.com
Fish Oil Reviews - Omega 3-fatty Acids
Meat-lover diets are overwhelmed by saturated animal fat and omega-6 fatty acids. Saturated fats from mammal
products contribute to many chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid) is in most
vegetable and cooking oils and is the primary oil used in processed and fast foods. Some of this fat may break down into
arachidonic acid that may enhance inflammation.

Omega 3 fatty acids and gamma linoleic acid are good fats, but we always have too little in our diets. Gamma linoleic acid
can be found in
borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil, while omega 3 fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes,
and some plants oils such as
flaxseed, olive and canola oils.

FISH OIL ACTIVE INGREDIENT
Omega 3 fatty acid is a group of fatty acids characterized by a double bond that sits three carbons down from the n
terminal of the molecule, e.g. eicosapentaenoic acid. [1] N-3 Omega
3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have well documented
anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and have also been demonstrated to have health benefits in a range of chronic
inflammatory diseases. [2] Fishes that give good fats include mackerel, tuna, salmon, sturgeon, mullet, bluefish,
anchovy, sardines, herring, trout, and menhaden. They provide about 1 gram of omega-3 fatty acids in about 3.5 ounces
of fish.In general, the colder the water they live in, the more omega-3 oil in the fish. Fish oils are commonly combined
with vitamin E, calcium, iron, or vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, C, or D.
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FISH OIL BENEFITS

Cardiaovascular events
Fish oil benefits are many. Fish oil is used for a wide range of conditions. Studies have suggested that fish oil benefits
people at risks of conditions related to the heart and blood system. Fish oil offers health benefits of blood pressure or
triglyceride levels lowering. Fish oil may help prevent heart disease or stroke. The scientific evidence suggests that fish
oil really does have health benefits to those with high triglycerides, and fish oil also seems to be able to prevent heart
disease and stroke when taken in the recommended amounts. However, overdoses of fish oil can increase the risk of
stroke.

Cognitive and Neuronal Conditions
Fish has been considered as “brain food” for years, eating fish may benefit some people with depression, psychosis,
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and other cognitive disorders. Fish oil may also benefit some
people suffered from dry eyes, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration.

Pain and Other Conditions
Fish oil supplements may also help ladies to prevent painful periods; breast pain; and complications associated with
pregnancy such as miscarriage, high blood pressure late in pregnancy, and early delivery. Fish oil may offer health
supports or benefits for people suffered from diabetes, asthma, developmental coordination disorders, movement
disorders, dyslexia, obesity, kidney disease, osteoporosis, psoriasis, and side effects of some cancer drugs.

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Benefits
The health benefits of eating fish seems to be different from intake of fish oil supplements. Eating fried fish or fish
sandwiches may not have the benefits of fish oil, they may actually increase heart disease risk. Further, fish may also
contain heavy metals or other contaminants. Further, fish oil contains high concentrations of two of the most important
omega-3 fatty acids contained in fish oil are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Supplementation of the maternal diet in pregnancy with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide a non-invasive
intervention with significant potential to prevent the development of allergic and possibly other immune-mediated
diseases or even cancers. [2, C1]  Fish-oil-derived monounsaturated fatty acids improved glucose/lipid homeostasis and
hindered the development of metabolic syndrome in obese mice. [A2] Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 PUFA)
are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments
(learning, memory). ω3 PUFA supplementation is able to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in
rodents. The long-term dietary ω3 PUFA from fish oil supplementation positively benefits on anxiety and cognitive
performances in the adult mouse lemur. [29] Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical data have enlightened the possible
benefits of n-3 PUFA in Alzheimer's disease. [A3] For details, please, review:
FISH OIL BENEFITS.
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FISH OIL SAFETY, RISK AND SIDE EFFECTS

Fish oil is LIKELY SAFE for most healthy people, at dosage: of 3 grams or less per day.

Fish oil can cause many side effects including belching, bad breath, heartburn, nausea, loose stools, rash, and
nosebleeds. Taking fish oil supplements with meals or freezing them can often decrease these side effects, but this
action may alter the effectiveness of the fish oil supplements.

High Dosage of fish oil supplements: Taking high doses of fish oil is NOT safe. Taking more than 3 grams per day can
increase the chance of bleeding. High doses of fish oil might also reduce the immune system’s activity, reducing the body
defense. High dosage of fish oil supplement may also increase levels of the “bad” LDL cholesterol in some people. You
will need blood tests from time to time to monitor the LDL levels.

Duration and Fish Oil Side Effects
Fish oil side effects vary depending on the brand, dosage and the user physical conditions. Low dose fish oil extracts are
found to be beneficial to healthy, older or sick subjects, but long-term use of high dose fish oil may lead to harmful side
effects. [8] The most common side effects of fish oil supplements include fishy odor on the breath, stomach upset,
gastrointestinal disturbances, and greasy stools. To avoid the unpleasant fish oil taste and gastrointestinal side effects,
researchers suggested using enteric-coating to prepare the fish-oil supplements. [9]

Fish Oil Side Effects and Users' Conditions
Fish oil side effects have been observed and reported in subjects with various health conditions. Insignificant side effects
were noted with patients suffered from sporadic adenomas [10], arthritis [11-12], asthma [13], depression [14], and
systemic lupus erythematosus [15,16]. No untoward or only mild gastrointestinal side effects were observed in patients
suffered from cancer. [17-20], from high blood pressure [21,22], from high triglyceride or cholesterol [23, 24] However,
potential side effects such as gastrointestinal distress, prolonged bleeding, and vitamin A toxicity may happen to patients
suffered from pruritus. [25]

In a study of healthy male subjects, supplementation of purified fish oil to eight healthy male subjects led to reduced
platelet aggregation and whole blood viscosity. [7] This may be a good news for people with high blood viscosity, but it
may lead to prolonged bleeding under certain conditions. [25]

Contaminants in Fish
As discussed in the previous sections, some fishes such as shark, king mackerel, and farm-raised salmon, may contain
mercury and other industrial and environmental chemicals, but fish oil supplements typically do not contain these
contaminants. It is because there is a purification process for the fish oil supplement preparations.

Intake of fish is a major source of exposure to mercury, and a high content of mercury probably inhibits the beneficial
effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the development of coronary artery disease. In some studies no beneficial effects of
fish intake on coronary heart disease could be found; one Finnish study even found a positive correlation between
intake of freshwater fish and coronary heart disease. Researchers explained this paradox due to a high content of
mercury in fish. In one study the odds ratio for myocardial infarction in those with the highest content of mercury was
2.16. They also observed a positive correlation between mercury in hair and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis.
[28]
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Fish Oil Supplements and Dosage
The optimal dosage of omega 3 fatty acid is not yet determined. However, fish oil dosage of 1 g has shown to reduce
overall and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Higher dosages may be used for
its potent triglyceride-lowering effects and for patients with rheumatoid arthritis to reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
use. American Heart Association Dietary Guidelines committee to recommend to the general population the consumption
of the dosage -- at least two servings of fatty fish per week, in addition to vegetable oils high in alpha-linolenic acid. [27]
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation of infant formula has shown benefits in infant neural growth and development. [3,4]
Most commercial products of fish oil are in dosage form of softgels. The maximum dosage is about 3 g, total of EPA/DHA
per day. Be sure to check the labels: the label may say “1 g of fish oil” but it may contain a petite amount of EPA and
DHA. Look for high potency products, so you don’t need to take so many softgels a day.

To minimize the fish oil side effects such as belching and flatulence, one should avoid taking the entire dosage at one
time. Try splitting a 3 g daily dosage into three 1 g dosages, and take throughout the day with meals. Fish side effects
depend on the brand that you use, if you have trouble tolerating one fish oil supplement, try switching to another brand.
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Fish Oil Benefits   Fish oil  - Manufacturing  Fish Oil Side Effects - High Dosages (Expt)        
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depression: report of a small open-label study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;66(6):726-9. [15] No major side effects were noted in a study of
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the cytokine network. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1994 Sep;51(3):207-13. [17] Patients with malignancy and weight loss > or
= 2% of body weight in the preceding month took concentrated, high-doses of fish oil that were supplied by the NIH. A majority of patients did
not gain weight and There was marked variability in the tolerability of the capsules, and many patients had gastrointestinal side effects.
[Burns CP et al Phase II study of high-dose fish oil capsules for patients with cancer-related cachexia. Cancer. 2004 Jul 15;101(2):370-8.]
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