Phosphatidylserine benefits and side effects, Phosphatidylserine dosage,
uses, brain. August 2011
Phosphatidylserine benefits
Phosphatidylserine is a member of phospholipids; it plays an important role in cellular composition. In
healthy subjects, phosphatidylserine is at high concentrations in the brain. The average daily intake from
the diet in western countries is about 130 mg a day, while, the total amount of phosphatidylserine in the
body is about 60 grams, half of which is in the brain. Anyway, the dosage of commercial product is about
100 mg / softgel. In the commercial products, phosphatidylserins is always mixed with other phospholipids.
Thus, the source can affect the composition of the product, and possibly the pharmacological activities of
the product. Modification of high cortisol has been claimed as a phosphatidylserine benefit over the internet,
while, researchers believe that phsophatidylserine may contribute benefits for our brain functions or
cognitive performance. Possibly, phosphatidylserine may further retard certain neurological disorders
including
Alzheimer's disease, though phosphatidylserine is not a cure for Alzheimer's disease. This article
summarize interesting research findings on phsphatidylserine benefits.

Phosphatidylserine Benefits - Early Animal Studies
In 1987, an Italian scientist, Valzelli L, from Instituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Italy, noticed
the neurochemical and behavioral changes during aging. He and his group performed intra-cerebral
injection of bovine brain phosphatidylserine on two different groups of mice, they found that bovine brain
phosphatidylserine improved performances in the subtype of mice with poor exploratory activity
[1987 Oct;9
(10):657-60].

Two years later (in 1989), another Italian research group, Fagioli S et al at Universita di Roma reported that
Phosphatidylserine administration during postnatal development improves memory in adult C57BL/6 mice.
They considered the findings were related to the effects of phosphatidylserine on cholinergic mechanisms.

[Neurosci Lett. 1989 Jun 19;101(2):229-33]

In the same year (i.e. 1989), Valzelli L et al, Fidia Research Laboratories, Italy reported that Chronic
phosphatidylserine treatment improves spatial memory and passive avoidance in aged rats. As assessed in
the Morris water maze test, old rats showed a variable loss of spatial memory. Old non-impaired rats
performed as well as young subjects, while old impaired rats exhibited a severe and persistent place-
navigation deficit. Passive avoidance retention was similarly affected in the two old subpopulations. 12
weeks oral administration of phosphatidylserine, phospholipid, was found to improve both the spatial
memory and the passive avoidance retention of aged impaired rats.
[Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989;99
(3):316-21]
.

Phosphatidylserine Benefits - Early Clinical Studies
In 1991, Crook TH et al at Memory Assessment Clinics, Inc, MD, treated 149 patients meeting criteria for
age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) for 12 weeks with a formulation of phosphatidylserine (100 mg
BC-phosphatidylserine three times a day) or placebo. Patients treated with the phosphatidylserine improved
relative to those treated with placebo on performance tests related to learning and memory tasks of daily
life. Analysis of clinical subgroups suggested that persons within the sample who performed at a relatively
low level prior to treatment were most likely to respond to BC-phosphatidylserine. Within this subgroup,
there was improvement on both computerized and standard neuropsychological performance tests, and
also on clinical global ratings of improvement. Consequently, the researchers suggested that the
phosphatidylserine may be a promising candidate for treating memory loss in later life [Neurology.
1991 May;41(5):644-9].

Two years later (in 1993), Cenacchi T et al at Fidia Research Laboratories, Italy, conducted a double-blind,
placebo-controlled multi-center study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration for cognitive decline
in the elderly. This clinical study involved a total of 494 patients aged 65-93 with moderate to severe
cognitive decline (based on Mini Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale). It is a six months
study. The efficacy of phosphatidylserine treatment was based on the changes in behavior and cognitive
performance using the Plutchik Geriatric Rating Scale and the Buschke Selective Reminding Test. They
found
Statistically significant improvements in the phosphatidylserine-treated group compared to
placebo were observed both in terms of behavioral and cognitive parameters.
They also reported
that phosphatidylserine was well tolerated.
[Aging (Milano) 1993(5):123–33]

One year afterward (in 1994), Heiss WD et al, Max-Planck-Institut fur neurologische Forschung, reported
that phosphatidylserine treatment has an effect on different measures of brain function in the journal
Dementia. They conducted a study with 70 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. They randomly
allocated these patients into four groups: 17 patients received only social support, 18 cognitive training
twice a week, in 17 cognitive training was combined with pyritinol 2 x 600 mg/day and in 18 cognitive training
was combined with phosphatidylserine 2 x 200 mg/day. They tested the patients underwent
neuropsychological testing as well as measurement of the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose using
positron emission tomography and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose before and after treatment. They found
that the neuropsychological improvements were best documented after 8 and 16 weeks. And, this
improvement faded towards the end of the treatment period. Consequently, they concluded that
phosphatidylserine could provide mainly of short-term benefit.

Phosphatidylserine Benefits - Animal and Clinical Studies after 2001
In 2001, a Japanese research group (lead by Suzuki S, Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological
Research) prepared Soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine  from soybean lecithin and
L-serine. They continuously administrated aged rates with transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine  and
found the transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine  significantly improved performance in the water maze
escape test.
transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine  also increased acetylcholine release and
the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity
. [J Nutr. 2001 Nov;131(11):2951-6]

Jorissen BL et al at Brain & Behaviour Institute, The Netherlands, We reported the results of a clinical trial of
soybean-derived phosphatidylserine in aging subjects with memory complaints. The subjects were 120
elderly (>57 years) with age-associated memory impairment and/or age-associated cognitive decline. They
were allocated at random to one of the three treatment groups: placebo, 300mg soybean-derived
phosphatidylserine daily, or 600mg soybean-derived phosphatidylserine daily. Tests of learning and
memory, choice reaction time, planning and attentional functions were administered periodically. They found
that no significant differences were found in any of the outcome variables between the treatment groups
and no significant interactions between treatment and 'severity of memory complaints'.
[Nutr Neurosci. 2001;
4(2):121-34]
.

Phosphatidylserine benefits - attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
A 30-week study suggests that phosphatidylserine-Omega3 may reduce attention-deficit/ hyperactivity
disorder symptoms in children. [Eur Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 30.]

Administration of PS extracted from bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS), which contains high levels of
omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) attached to its backbone, resulted in positive
effects on brain functions such as learning and memory. Recently, a novel marine-sourced
phosphatidylserine with omega-3 LC-PUFA attached to its backbone was developed (Phosphatidylserine-
DHA). 157 non-demented elderly participants with memory complaints were randomized to receive either
Phosphatidylserine-DHA (Dosage 300 mg Phosphatidylserine/day) or placebo for 15 weeks. At the end of
the study, there was a reduction in resting diastolic blood pressure and a slight weight gain among
participants who consumed Phosphatidylserine-DHA for 30 weeks. [BMC Neurol. 2011 Jun 28;11:79.]


Phosphatidylserine Side Effects
Phosphatidylserine is not reported. But, most phosphatidylserine products carry calories.
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