FLAVONOIDS IN BLACK CURRANT
Flavonoids and related plant compounds in fruits and vegetables are of particular importance as they have been
found to possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Researchers analyzed the content of the
flavonols quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol in 10 black currant cultivars and they found myricetin was the most
abundant flavonol in the study. In addition, they also found a high variability in the levels of flavonols in different
cultivars. [8]

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES, HEALTH BENEFITS OF ANTHOCYANINS IN BLACK CURRANT
The berries of black currant are rich in polyphenolic compounds and especially in anthocyanins, demonstrating
antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of plant products contribute multiple health benefits. Researchers
evaluated 13 black currant juices and found anthocyanin content or vitamin C attributed 70% of the antioxidant
capacity of the juices. And, the antioxidant activity of the anthocyanin was most intense at neutral pHs. [18, 25]

Researchers administered monkeys on fat diets with blackcurrant for three months. In the study, blood filtrability
of animals given a fat diet alone was significantly lowered as compared with that of animals receiving a standard
diet. However, blood filtrability of animals receiving a fat diet and blackcurrant anthocyanosides was not
significantly different from that of animals given a standard diet. [1]

BLACK CURRANT JUICES BENEFITS

Black currant juice benefits - anti-cancer activities.
The fruit juice of black currant was found to contain a polysaccharide-rich substance, which was designated
cassis polysaccharide, with macrophage-stimulating activity. Especially, its interleukin (IL)-1beta-inducing activity
was remarkably high, compared with other fruit juice preparations.

In a study of carcinoma-bearing mice, oral administration of black currant juice and cassis polysaccharide
retarded the growth of the solid tumor by 45% and 51% respectively. carcinoma-bearing administration had a
stimulatory effect on the release of IL-2, IL-10, interferon-gamma, and IL-4 from splenocytes cassis
polysaccharide showed a certain cytotoxicity directly against tumor cells. [26]

Back currant juice benefits - anti-oxidative activities
Black currant juice shows anti-oxidant activities against human LDL oxidation. Enzymatic release of phenolic
compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice exerted a pronounced antioxidant
activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 microM. [7]

Black currant juice is not stable at high temperature.
Black currant juice quality changes when stored at high temperatures. Storage of black currant at 60 degrees C
for eight hours, the amount of polyphenols decreased by 46%, anthocyanins 31%, and antioxidant activity by
26%. [20, 22]

BLACK CURRANT CONCENTRATE BENEFITS
Researchers investigated the effect of black currant concentrate on smooth muscle in rat thoracic aorta. They
found that black currant concentrate dose-dependently relaxed the norepinephrine (0.1 microM)-precontracted
aorta, and the response was abolished after endothelium removal. They concluded that black currant
concentrate enhances synthesis of NO, which subsequently induces the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation
via the H1-receptors on the endothelium. [17]

BLACK CURRANT SEED BENEFITS
Several crude and purified polysaccharides from black currant seeds (Ribes nigrum L.) have been isolated,
analysed and examined on their effects against Helicobacter pylori in in situ adhesion studies on sections of
human gastric mucosa. After pre-treatment of Helicobacter pylori with 0.01 to 0.1 % solutions of the isolated raw
polysaccharide (RPS), the epithelial binding of the bacteria was considerably reduced in a
concentration-dependent manner. Researchers concluded that its acidic, high molecular weight galactans are
responsible for the antiadhesive qualities of black currant seed extracts and that these polymers are able to block
Helicobacter surface receptors, thus inhibiting their interaction with specific binding factors located on human
gastric epithelia. [21]

BLACK CURRANT SEED OIL BENEFITS
Black currant seed oil, rich in both gamma-linolenic (18:3n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids, has been
shown to modulate membrane lipid composition and eicosanoid production. [6]

European diets provide a suboptimal intake of eicosapentaenoic (20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n3) acids,
which are derived mainly from fish oils. A study indicates that black currant seed oil, which contains 14.5%
alpha-linolenic (18:3n3), 12.6% gamma-linolenic (18:3n6), 47.5% linoleic (18:2n6) and 2.7% stearidonic (18:4n3)
acids, could potentially serve as alternative to fish oil as a n3 fatty acid source. This study of 15 healthy females
indicates that black currant seed oil supplementation can lower serum levels of LDL cholesterol. [23] In another
study, black currant oil (gamma-linolenic acid; GLA) diets lower the blood pressure of SHR rats and help relieve
inflammation and enhance the immune systems. [4-6]

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) shows inhibitory effects on histamine release, eicosanoid production and pruritus
in laboratory rodents, and it showed benefits on atopic dermatitis in a study of dog. [27]

THIS ARTICLE IS FOR YOUR REFERENCE ONLY. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTION, YOU SHOULD CONSULT WITH YOUR DOCTOR. ALL RIGHT
RESERVED 2006 ZHION. REFERENCE: [1] Millet J et al, Improvement of blood filtrability with a purified extract of black currant anthocyanosides in
cynomologus monkeys on a fat diet J Pharmacol. 1984 Oct-Dec;15(4):439-45. [2] Crozier GL, et al, Black currant seed oil feeding and fatty acids in
liver lipid classes of guinea pigs. Lipids. 1989 May;24(5):460-6. [3] Declume C. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of a hydroalcoholic extract of black
currant leaves (Ribes nigrum). J Ethnopharmacol. 1989 Nov;27(1-2):91-8. [4] Engler MM. Comparative study of diets enriched with evening primrose,
black currant, borage or fungal oils on blood pressure and pressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty
Acids. 1993 Oct;49(4):809-14. [5] Tate GA, Zurier RB. Suppression of monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation by black currant seed oil. Agents
Actions. 1994 Nov;43(1-2):35-8. [6] Wu D, Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on the immune response of healthy elderly
subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):536-43.  [7] Landbo AK, Meyer AS. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black currant
juice press residues (Ribes nigrum). J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jul;49(7):3169-77. [8] Mikkonen TP, Flavonol content varies among black currant
cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jul;49(7):3274-7. [17] Nakamura Y, Matsumoto H, Todoki K.Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by
black currant concentrate in rat thoracic aorta. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 May;89(1):29-35.

[18] Matsumoto H, et al, Antioxidant activity of black currant anthocyanin aglycons and their glycosides measured by chemiluminescence in a neutral
pH region and in human plasma. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 28;50(18):5034-7. [19] Nielsen IL, et al, Quantification of anthocyanins in commercial
black currant juices by simple high-performance liquid chromatography. Investigation of their pH stability and antioxidative potency. J Agric Food
Chem. 2003 Sep 24;51(20):5861-6. [20] Kasparaviciene G, Briedis V.Stability and antioxidant activity of black currant and black aronia berry juices
Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39 Suppl 2:65-9. [21] Lengsfeld C, Deters A, Faller G, Hensel A. High molecular weight polysaccharides from black currant
seeds inhibit adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric mucosa. Planta Med. 2004 Jul;70(7):620-6. [22] Varming C, Andersen ML, Poll L.
Influence of thermal treatment on black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice aroma. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Dec 15;52(25):7628-36. [23] Tahvonen RL,
Schwab US, Linderborg KM, Mykkanen HM, Kallio HP.Black currant seed oil and fish oil supplements differ in their effects on fatty acid profiles of
plasma lipids, and concentrations of serum total and lipoprotein lipids, plasma glucose and insulin. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Jun;16(6):353-9. [25]
McDougall GJ, et al Anthocyanin-flavanol condensation products from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Oct 5;53(20):7878-85.
[26] Takata R, Yamamoto R, Yanai T, Konno T, Okubo T. Immunostimulatory effects of a polysaccharide-rich substance with antitumor activity isolated
from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Nov;69(11):2042-50. [27] Noli C, Carta G, Cordeddu L, Melis MP, Murru E,
Banni S. Conjugated linoleic acid and black currant seed oil in the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis: A preliminary report. Vet J. 2006 Feb 20

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