BACKGROUND
Over 40 million Americans suffer from pain and loss of mobility due to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is
an end stage of arthritis, in which the cartilage that makes up bone joints is destroyed, allowing two
bones to rub against each other. It is extremely painful.

GLUCOSAMINE REVIEW
Glucosamine is a natural compound found in high concentrations in joint cartilage. This joint cartilage
functions as a protective tissue  allowing the joints to function as they should.  However, as we get
older, this cartilage gets thinner. In some cases, osteoarthritis occurs. Glucosamine sulfate along with
chondroitin sulfate are always the product of choice to take for joint problem. It has been thought that
glucosamine is a key factor to healing and regrowth of this tissue. Glucosamine can be derived from
shrimp, oyster, plant life and crab shells.

GLUCOSAMINE BENEFITS

Glucosamine benefit - Arthritis
Previous reports
A dosage of 1.5 gram of glucosamine daily for 2-4 weeks is just as effective as low doses of NSAIDs in
alleviating pain. [1] Another study shows a great decrease in symptom severity after 4-6 weeks oral or
intramuscular administration of glucosamine.[2] Finally, injection of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate,
dextose and DMSO may help chronic intractable low back pain. [3]

2011
In patients with knee osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine administration
during a 12-week strength-training program did not improve muscle mass gain, but improved maximal
muscle strength gain in comparison with treatment with placebo. However,Petersen SG and
co-workers at University of Copenhagen wrote that they did not find that the benefits were large
enough to justify taking NSAIDs or glucosamine in their article. [Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011
Aug;92(8):1185-93.]

Glucosamine chondroitin sulphate improved results of Achilles tendon healing in rats. This result might
be due to decreased inflammation and stimulation of collagen synthesis. Although glucosamine
chondroitin sulphate is recommended only in osteoarthritic patients to relieve symptoms and signs,
Ozer H and co-workers suggest use of glucosamine choridroitin  in treatment of soft tissue injuries
during sports activities. [Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi. 2011 Aug;22(2):100-6]

Magrans-Courtney T and other researchers from Texas A&M University concluded circuit style
resistance-training and weight loss improved functional capacity in women with knee arthritis. The type
of diet and dietary supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM provided marginal additive
benefits from a study of thirty sedentary women with clinically diagnosed knee arthritis. [J Int Soc
Sports Nutr. 2011 Jun 20;8(1):8.]

Glucosamine Sulphate and Chondroitin Sulphate may also be beneficial on the healing of damaged
and repaired articular cartilage. The suggestion is based on a study of 18 New Zealand white rabbits.
Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means
of autologous chondrocyte implantation or left untreated as controls. The improved regeneration of
these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months) and in
Glucosamine Sulphate and "Glucosamine Sulphate and Chondroitin Sulphate" groups compared to
the untreated (without pharmacotherapy) group. (Eur Cell Mater. 2011 Mar 15;21:259-71)

Glucosamine benefit - immuno-modulation
The immune function of normal mice could be enhanced by glucosamine sulfate, including cellular
immunity, humoral immunity and the activity of NK cell. [Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2011 Mar;40(2):227-9.]

Glucosamine chondroitin benefit - anti-cancer activities

2011
Epidemiologic studies have reported inverse associations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
(NSAID) use and lung cancer risk. Brasky TM et al at The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center,
Seattle, found that ever use of glucosamine and chondroitin, which have anti-inflammatory properties,
were inversely associated with lung cancer risk. They run a survey and further proved the
observation. Their results for glucosamine use are similar to the prior human studies of NSAID use
and lung cancer, both in magnitude and the limitation of the association to adenocarcinoma. Unlike
NSAIDs, glucosamine has no known adverse effects or serious side effects. [Cancer Causes Control.
2011 Sep;22(9):1333-42.]

Glucosamine has been reported to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis more than half century.
Glucosamine enters the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) downstream of the rate-limiting step
catalyzed by the GFAT (glutamine:fluctose-6-phosphate amidotransferase), providing UDP-GlcNAc
substrates for O-linked b-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification. Liu BQ et al found
glucosamine inhibited proteasomal activity and the proliferation of human ALVA41 prostate cancer
cells. The inhibition of proteasomal activity results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins,
followed by induction of apoptosis. Glucosamine may inhibit growth of ALVA41 cancer cells through
downregulation of PA28g and inhibition of proteasomal activity via O-GlcNAc modification. [Exp Mol
Med. 2011 Jun 23]

Glucosamine benefit (or glucosamine side effect)
Diabetes is a independent risk factor for vascular disease. However, it has been reported that
increased influx of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) induces O-GlcNAcylation of proteins,
leading to insulin resistance. Kim do H et al at Catholic University of Daegu, Korea, noticed that
glucosamine induced OGlcNAcylation of proteins and augmented vessel contraction stimulated by a
chemical in a study of an endothelium-denuded aortic ring. [BMB Rep. 2011 Jun;44(6):415-20]

Glucosamine and dog
Moderately arthritic dogs treated with type-II collagen showed a marked reduction in arthritic pain with
maximum improvement by day 150. type-II collagen, glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin
sulphate operate through different mechanisms of action, and were well tolerated over a period of 150
days. [J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2011 May 30.]

GLOCOSAMINE DOSAGE
Most commercial products - 1500 mg a day.
________________________________________________________________________________
Glucosamine Side Effects, Safety and Toxicity

The LD50 of oral glucosamine in animals is about 8000 mg/kg with no side nor adverse effects at
2700 mg/kg for 12 months.

Anderson JW and his co-workers at University of Kentucky reviewed clinical trial data for 3063 human
subjects and found that there were no side effects of oral glucosamine administration on blood, urine
or fecal parameters. They concluded that glucosamine is safe under current conditions and does not
affect glucose metabolism. [4]

Oral glucosamine supplementation has limited side effects on patients suffered from type 2 diabetes
mellitus as it does not result in clinically significant alterations in glucose metabolism in these patients.
[5] In fact, clinical studies of glucosamine have provided mixed evidence about the effect of exogenous
glucosamine on glucose metabolism in humans. More studies are needed, particularly including
diabetic subjects, to draw a conclusion. [Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Apr;19(4):375-80.]

Most glucosamine is derived from shellfish. You may develop allergy as a glucosamine side effect for
oral glucosamine supplementation, if you are allegic to shellfish.

ASTHMA - one of the glucosamine side effects? Tallia AF and Cardone DA, University of
Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey searched literature from 1980 to 2002 using ther terms
"glucosamine," "chondroitin sulfate,"...combined with "asthma". A case of asthma exacerbated by the
use of a glucosamine-chondroitin supplements for osteoarthritis was described. [6]



Reference
[1] Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as a possible treatment for osteoarthritis, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2002 Sep
28;146(39):1819-23. [2]  Glucosamine: a review of its use in the managment of osteoarthritis. Drug Aging.
2003;20(14):1041-60. [3] Biochmical injection treatment for discogenic low back pain: a pilot study. Spine J.
2003May-Jun; 3(3):220-6. [4] Anderson JW et al, Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose
metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Feb;43(2):187-201. [5]
Scroggie DA et al, The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in
patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trials. Arch Intern Med.
2003 Jul 14; 163(13):1587-90. [6] Asthma exacerbation associated with glucosamine-chondroitin supplement. J Am
Board Fam Pract. 2002 Nov-Dec; 15(6):481-4.

Does chondroitin sulfate affect the absorption of glucosamine?
Glucosamine Side effects, glucosamine benefits, glucosamine chondroitin
Glcosamine reviews and glucosamine dosage  zhion@zhion.com August
2011
                        
Glucosamine is a popular supplement for joint health. This article summarizes recent research findings related to glucosamine side
effects.
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Science
Articles - arthritis / herbs and supplements
1. Benefits of cod liver oil
2. Devil's claw side effects and benefits
3. How does resveratrol benefit animals suffered from arthritis?
4. Shark cartilage side effects and benefits
5. Stinging nettles - health benefits on various conditions such as coughs, tuberculosis & arthritis.
6.
Wheat grass health benefits
7. Fish oil side effects
8. Borage oil may benefit people suffered from rheumatoid arthritis.
9.
Rutin may help arthritis.
10. Health benefits of cherry
11. Chestnut side effects and benefits
12. Feverfew, reputed by folklore to be effective in arthritis
13. Hyaluronic acid - a treatment for arthritis?
14. Boswellia Serrata benefits - arthritis and colitis
15. Celery health benefits and nutritional facts
16. How does chondroitin benefit osteoarthritis?
17. Achyranthees bidentata may have anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritis and analgestic effects.
18.
Health benefits of Rosmarinic acid
19. Health benefits of Cyanidin
20. Maitake Benefits and Side Effects
21. Capsicum [red chili pepper] benefits and side effects
22. Yucca -Preliminary study shows these saponins may benefit arthritis
23. Fenugreek benefits on arthritis.
24.
Hops may have anti-inflammation effects and benefit arthritis.
25.
Oldenlandia diffusa may also benefit animals suffered from inflammation and arthritis.
26.
Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis.
27.
Health benefits of nobiletin
28. Atractylodes--- Does it have health benefits?
29. Honokiol stabilized the severity of symptomatic collagen-induced arthritis
30. Black cohosh - It may also benefit people suffered from arthritis.
31.
Chamomile benefits and side effects
32. Saffron benefits and side effects
33. Burdock has been claimed to benefit in a wide variety of conditions, including arthritis
34. Glucosamine side effects
35. Ashwaganha side effects and its effects on inflammation
36. Watermelon may help...
37.
Turmeric side effects
38. Royal jelly
39. Celadrin benefits
40. Does grape seed extract lower bad cholesterol?