Ginkgo biloba may benefit people at risk of certain cancers. In an experiment, ginkgo biloba extract significantly
suppressed proliferation and increased cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma. [4] In another experiment,
researchers found that the effect of Ginkgo biloba on human gastric cancer was related to the expression of c-myc, bcl-
2 and c-fos genes, which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and differentiation of tumor cells. [5] The use of
the herbal remedy Ginkgo biloba may also reduce the risk for nonmucinous ovarian cancer. In a study, a human
ovarian surface epithelial cell line-636 was developed from a BRCA1-mutant carrier. Cells were treated with ginkgolide
B (GB) or dimethyl sulfoxide, and protein lysates from the cells were applied to antibody microarrays to determine
upregulated or downregulated protein expression patterns. After Ginkgo biloba treatment, 28 proteins were shown to
be consistently upregulated (1.5-15.5-fold), and 22 proteins were downregulated (1.5-28.3-fold), pathways include cell
proliferation, tumor suppression, and DNA damage repair. [9] Thus, ginkgo biloba extracts may benefit people suffered
from certain cancers, but clinical studies are needed to support this health claim.

Ginkgo biloba may benefit people at risk of certain memory issues. The standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761
has been used to reduce cognitive dysfunction. A study was designed to evaluate the effect of postischemic oral
treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract 761 in a model of vascular dementia in gerbils. Daily oral post-treatment with
Ginkgo biloba extract 761 led to a significant recovery of spatial memory assessed by the object location test, inhibited
the decrease in plasma SOD activity and protected the hippocampal CA1 neurons, even when administered after the
insult. These data suggest the beneficial application of ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of vascular dementia or
memory enhancement. [12] In another study, 188 healthy subjects aged 45-56 years were randomised to receive
ginkgo biloba extract 761 (dosage 240mg once daily) or placebo for 6 weeks. Researchers found ginkgo biloba extract
761 (dosage 240 mg once daily) improves free recall of appointments in middle-aged healthy volunteers, which
requires high demands on self-initiated retrieval of learned material. [13]

Ginkgo biloba may have benefits of neuroprotection, ginkgo biloba is a specific and potent antagonist of platelet
activating factor. There is a large body of data showing that ginkgo biloba may possess a markedly neuroprotective
benefits against ischemia-induced impairment. Recently it has been found that ginkgo biloba can inhibit the
inflammation in the rat brain tissues with ischemia/reperfusion injury and in the astrocytes treated with
lipopolysaccharide, as well as protect neurons against beta-amyloid 25-35 and ischemia-induced apoptosis. In another
study, Wistar rats obtained an intraperitoneal injection of dosages 5, 10 and 20mg/kg ginkgo biloba extract after
intracerebral hemorrhage once a day till day 5. The researchers found an administration of dosages 10 and 20mg/kg
ginkgo biloba extract could significantly suppress gene expressions of TLR-4 and NF-κB, lessen concentrations of
TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as reduce number of apoptotic neuronal cells in hemorrhagic rat brain tissues. [7]

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
Does ginkgo biloba benefit people suffered from Alzheimer's Disease? Amyloid beta-peptide has been found to have a
role in the free-radical oxidative-stress model of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Hydrogen peroxide level was
elevated with AD-associated transgenic cells expressing the amyloid beta-peptide. Treatment of these cells with
Ginkgo biloba extract significantly attenuated the basal as well as the hydrogen peroxide-realted reactive oxygen
species levels. [6]

One of the frequently prescribed treatments for tinnitus is Ginkgo biloba extract. Therefore, randomized, placebo-
controlled clinical trials of Ginkgo biloba extract preparations were searched for and reviewed systematically. There is
evidence of efficacy for the standardized extract, EGb 761(®) (Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co KG Pharmaceuticals,
Karlsruhe, Germany), in the treatment of tinnitus from three trials in patients in whom tinnitus was the primary
complaint. [8] Thus, ginkgo biloba extract may benefits people with tinnitus.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
A review revealed that 16 studies met inclusion criteria, with predominant evidentiary support found for zinc, iron, Pinus
marinus (French maritime pine bark), and a Chinese herbal formula (Ningdong); and mixed (mainly inconclusive)
evidence for omega-3, and l-acetyl carnitine. Current data suggest that Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Hypercium
perforatum (St. John's wort) are ineffective in treating ADHD. [10] Thus, ginkgo biloba may not benefit people suffered
from ADHD.

Huntington's disease
Ginkgo biloba extract may benefit people at risk of Huntington's diseases. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP), an irreversible
inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH), induces neurodegeneration similar to that observed in
Huntington's disease (HD). study was designed to investigate neuroprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on 3-NP
induced neurobehavioral changes and striatal lesions. Rats administered 3-NP (dosage -20mg/kg, s.c.) for five
consecutive days exhibited PPI deficits and locomotor hypoactivity whereas, pretreatment of animals with Ginkgo
biloba extract  (dosage - 100mg/kg, i.p. for 15days) ahead of and during the induction of HD by 3-NP (20mg/kg for
5days starting at day 8) ameliorated 3-NP-induced neurobehavioral deficits. Administration of 3-NP increased the level
of striatal malondialdehyde (MDA). This effect was prevented in animals pre-treated with Ginkgo biloba extract . [11]


High dosages of ginkgo biloba dosages leaf extract may lead to ocular side effects and/or hemorrhage in patients. [2,
3] In general, ginkgo biloba side effects may include stomach upset, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, or headache. If any
of these side effects persist or worsen, users should tell their doctors promptly. Intake of ginkgo biloba may also lead
to rare but very serious side effects such as restlessness, seizures, slurred speech, severe headache, easy
bleeding/bruising, fainting, irregular heartbeat, inability to move, muscle weakness, weakness on one side of the body,
vision problems. Further, ginkgo biloba may also cause a very serious, rare side effect of allergic reaction. Users must
seek immediate medical attention if he or she experiences rash, itching/swelling, severe dizziness, and trouble
breathing. Please, note that this is not a complete list of possible ginkgo biloba side effects.

Ginkgo biloba have anticoagulation and anti-platelet properties, those being treated for vascular disorder should avoid
high dosages of ginkgo biloba. [1] Further, people should not take ginkgo biloba before surgery, users must check
with their doctors before undergoing any procedure.

Dosage and Extraction
The preferred form as recommended by the European commission E standards is a Gingko that has less than 5 ppm
of Ginkgolic acids. Ginkgolic acids are a naturally occurring component of the lipid fraction of the extract.

Extracts of Ginkgo leaves contain flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides). Ginkgo supplements
are usually taken in the dosage range of 40–200 mg per day.
[1] Bartlett H. Possible contraindications and adverse reactions associated with the use of ocular nutritional
supplements. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2005 May;25(3):179-94.[2] Koch E. Inhibition of platelet activating factor (PAF)-
induced aggregation of human thrombocytes by ginkgolides: considerations on possible bleeding complications after
oral intake of ginkgo biloba extracts. Phytomedicine. 2005 jan;12(1-2):10-6.[3] Fraunfelder FW. ocular side effects
from herbal medicines and nutritional supplements. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 oct;138(4):639-47.
[4] Effects of Ginkgo biloba
extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Chao et al, World J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jan;10(1):37-
41.] [5] Therapeutic mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer. Xu et al, Yangzhou University, China. World
J Gastroenterol 2003 Nov;9(11):2424-7.] [6] Elevation of oxidative free radicals in Alzheimer's disease models can be attenuated by
Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Smith et al, The University of Southern Mississippi, USA. J Alzheimers Dis. 203 Aug;5(4):287-300]. [7] Hu
YY, Huang M, Dong XQ, Xu QP, Yu WH, Zhang ZY. Ginkgolide B reduces neuronal cell apoptosis in the hemorrhagic rat brain: Possible
involvement of Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Aug 22. [8] von Boetticher A. Ginkgo biloba
extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:441-7. Epub 2011 Jul 28. [9] Jiang W, Qiu W,
Wang Y, Cong Q, Edwards D, Ye B, Xu C. Ginkgo may prevent genetic-associated ovarian cancer risk: multiple biomarkers and
anticancer pathways induced by ginkgolide B in BRCA1-mutant ovarian epithelial cells. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011 Aug 19. [10] Sarris J,
Kean J, Schweitzer I, Lake J. Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD): A systematic review of the evidence. Complement Ther Med. 2011 Aug;19(4):216-27. [11] Mahdy HM, Tadros MG,
Mohamed MR, Karim AM, Khalifa AE.  The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Neurochem
Int. 2011 Jul 31 [12] Rocher MN, Carré D, Spinnewyn B, Schulz J, Delaflotte S, Pignol B, Chabrier PE, Auguet M. Long-term treatment with
standardized Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) attenuates cognitive deficits and hippocampal neuron loss in a gerbil model of vascular
dementia. Fitoterapia. 2011 Oct;82(7):1075-80 [13] Kaschel R. Specific memory effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in middle-aged
healthy volunteers. Phytomedicine. 2011 Jul 28. Other reference:,
Ginkgo biloba benefits,  ginkgo biloba side effects
review, dosage, vitamin, products, extract, memory      September 12, 2011
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Ginkgo Biloba (白果, bái guǒ; 銀杏; yín xìng) is a very powerful herbal product that has been shown to have a number of beneficial attributes.
Ginkgo (also spelled as gingko) is known as the Maidenhair Tree, which is widely cultivated. Ginkgo biloba has been used as food and traditional
medicine for many years. Ginkgo grows best in environments that are well-watered and well-drained. Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of
shoots with regularly spaced leaves. Its leaves are fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating. Ginkgos are
dioecious, with separate sexes. Male plants produce small pollen cones with sporophylls. Female plants have ovules. After pollination, one or both
develop into seeds. Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China; some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1,500 years old.

Ginkgo Biloba is manufactured and sold in Europe under pharmaceutical and commission E standards, is best known for its ability to enhance
circulation systemically. The extract has been shown in hundreds of studies to increases the oxygen supply to the heart, brain, and all other body
parts. Most of the market has been developed around Ginkgo's ability to improve blood flow to the brain, which increases the oxygen supply and
therefore the potential for improved mental function. Ginkgo's action is directly related to the vaso- relaxing activity that the herb seems to have, the
active ingredient that performs this action has been identified to be the nitric oxide (NO). The NO induces vasodilatation by activating a soluble
guanylate cyclase in the vascular smooth muscle, which relaxes the surrounding tissue. Ginkgo Biloba by this action can also lower blood pressure;
and in conjunction with this ability it has also been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation (stickiness).

The studies performed using Gingko Biloba extracts have been especially promising in the area of senility; this is where most of the current market
is being perpetuated. The region within this field of study that has shown the most promise is the research on Alzheimer's disease. If used during
the early stages of the disease, it has been shown that the mental deterioration that is associated with the pathology can be decreased. Studies
show that taking a standardized Gingko Biloba extract increases the functionality of the acetylcholine (a nerve chemical) receptors that are
damaged as the disease progresses. The dose rate to illicit a positive response has been shown to be relatively small, and the product can be
taken indefinitely. The user just has to make sure they are taking a quality product that contains the appropriate 24 % flavone glycosides and 6%
terpene content. The user can expect results only after taking the product for 3-6 months on a daily basis. Some users report results in shorter
periods, it all depends on the severity of the symptoms.