Reference

1. Joe LA, Hart LL. Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:1475-7 [review].2. Dippneaar N, Booyens J, Fabbri D,
Katzeff IE. The reversibility of cancer: evidence that malignancy in melanoma cells is gamma linolenic acid deficiency-dependent. S Afr Med J
1982;62:505-9.3. Pritchard GA, Mansel RE. The effects of essential fatty acids on the growth of breast cancer and melanoma. In Omega-6
Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. Horrobin DF (ed). New York: Alan R Liss, 1990, 379-90.4. Lee JH, Sugano
M. Effects of linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Nutr Rep Int 1986;34:1041.5.
Naidu MRC, Das UN, Kshan A. Intratumoral gamma-linolenic acid therapy of human gliomas. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids
1992;45:181-4.6. Van der Merwe CF, Booyens J. Oral gamma-linolenic acid in 21 patients with untreatable malignancy. An ongoing pilot open
clinical trial. Br J Clin Pract 1987;41:907-5.7. McIllmurray MB, Turkie W. Controlled trial of gamma linolenic in Duke's C colorectal cancer. Br
Med J 1987;294:1260.8. Ishikawa T, Fujiyama Y, Igarashi O, et al. Effects of gammalinolenic acid on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins.
Atherosclerosis 1989;75:95-04.9. Boberg M, Vessby B, Selinus I. Effects of dietary supplementation with n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated
fatty acids on serum lipoproteins and platelet function in hypertriglyceridaemic patients. Acta Med Scand 1986;220:153-60.10. Yoshimoto-Furuie
K, Yoshimoto K, Tanaka T, et al. Effects of oral supplementation with evening primrose oil for six weeks on plasma essential fatty acids and
uremic skin symptoms in hemodialysis patients. Nephron 1999;81:151-9.11. Tamimi NA, Mikhail AI, Stevens PE. Role of gamma-linolenic acid in
uraemic pruritus. Nephron 1999;83:170-1 [letter].12. Vaddadi KS, Gilleard CJ. Essential fatty acids, tardive dyskinesia, and schizophrenia. In
Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine. Horrobin DF (ed). New York: Alan R Liss, 1990, 333-43.13.
Horrobin DF, Manku M, Brush M, et al. Abnormalities in plasma essential fatty acid levels in women with pre-menstrual syndrome and with
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gamma-linolenic acid. Diabetes Care 1993;16:8–15.
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syndrome. Med Hypotheses 1984;14:233-47.6. Horrobin DF, Campbell A. Sjogren’s syndrome and the sicca syndrome: the role of
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Essential fatty acids, tardive dyskinesia, and schizophrenia. In Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Pathophysiology and Roles in Clinical Medicine,
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phospholipids of patients with atopic eczema. Br J Derm 1984;110:643.19. Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acids in clinical dermatology. J Am Acad
Dermatol 1989;20:1045-53.20. Mansel RE, Pye JK, Hughes LE. Effects of essential fatty acids on cyclical mastalgia and noncyclical breast
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Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acid metabolism in diseases of connective tissue with special reference to scleroderma and to Sjogren's syndrome.
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epilepsy and schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Med 1981;6:375-9.
25. Holman CP, Bell AFJ. A trial of evening primrose oil in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia. J Orthomol Psychiatr 1983;12:302-4.[26]
Metabolism. 2004 Jan;53(1):59-65[27] Metabolism. 2001 Aug;50(8):868-75.[28] Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):20-5.[29]  
Int J Radiat Biol. 2000 Jun;76(6):871-7.[30] Breast. 2000 Feb;9(1):35-6. [31]  Auton Neurosci. 2004 Mar 31;111(1):57-65 [32]  Am J Obstet
Gynecol. 2002 Nov;187(5):1389-94. A1 Haslett C, Douglas JG, Chalmers SR, Weighhill A, Munro JF.A double-blind evaluation of evening
primrose oil as an antiobesity agent. Int J Obes. 1983;7(6):549-53. [A2} Zaitone SA, et al, Effect of evening primrose oil and omega-3
polyunsaturated Fatty acids on the cardiovascular risk of celecoxib in rats. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;58(1):72-9. [AA1]
FDA Poisonous
Plant Database Herbal medicines: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions
Arch Intern Med, 158(20), 2200-2211 [English]
Evening Primrose Oil Uses

Evening primrose is a plant native to North America, but it grows in Europe and parts of the Southern
hemisphere as well. It has yellow flowers that bloom in the evening. Evening primrose oil contains
gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an essential fatty acid. Essential fatty acids are required by the body for growth
and development, and must be obtained from the diet.

Evening primrose oil is commonly used for breast pain, it has also been suggested for cancer. Though there
have only limited amounts of scientific support.

Evening Primrose Oil Benefits - rheumatoid arthritis
It is believed that evening primrose oil supplement provides significant benefit to people suffering from
rheumatoid arthritis.
1.

Evening Primrose Oil Benefits - Anti-inflammatory Effects
Evening primrose oil contains gamma linolenic acid (GLA). GLA is a fatty acid that the body converts to
prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). PGE1 has anti-inflammatory properties and may also act as a blood thinner and
blood vessel dilator. Thus, it is possible that evening primrose oil has benefits of anti-inflammatory and
blood pressure lowering effects. de La Puerta Vazquez R concluded that evening primrose oil could be
considered as a valuable strategy in preventing the generation of some inflammatory mediators. [26]

Evening Primrose Oil Benefits - Vascular Effects
It has been discussed that evening primrose oil may act as a blood thinner and vessel dilator. Ford I et al
Scotland found that evening primrose oil could improve blood flow and nerve function in their studies. [27]

In a study of rats, male Wistar rats were assigned to different combinations of celecoxib, evening primrose
oil, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and placebos.The rats were treated with celecoxib (20
mg·kg·d) by gastric gavage for 6 weeks. The mean blood pressure was recorded, and blood samples were
collected. Celecoxib increased the blood pressure (BP) without affecting coagulation parameters and
accelerated thrombogenesis by increasing platelet aggregation and collagen-induced thrombocytopenia.
Evening primrose oil and PUFAs decreased the celecoxib-induced elevation in BP. Although evening
primrose oil significantly decreased platelet aggregation and collagen-induced thrombocytopenia, PUFAs
did not. [A2]

Evening Primrose Oil Benefits - Anti-cancer Effects
Evening Primrose oil may have anticancer activity in vitro 2-7. Evening primrose oil may be able to lower
cholesterol levels in some people
8-9.

Evening Primrose Oil Benefits - Skin Conditions.
Evening primrose oil supplement may improve skin itching, redness and dryness associated with kidney
dialysis.
10 11 Supplementation with evening primrose oil may help people with premenstrual syndrome,
diabetes, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, eczema, and other skin conditions
12-23.

Rahbeeni F et al South Africa Daily evening primrose oil supplementation reduced the sensitivity of skin to
radiation-induced moist desquamation but did not alter tumour sensitivity to radiation. [29]

Yoon S et al Korea concluded that evening primrose oil could be highly effective in the treatment of a
grossly noninflammatory type of atopic dermatitis. [28]

Head RJ et al Switzerland found that gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) may prevent the deficit in NCV indirectly,
possibly by its role as a precursor of vasodilatory prostaglandins in their studies. Gamma linolenic acid is
the active component of evening primrose oil.

Evening Primrose Oil Benefits - Anti-diabetes?
Aging, glucose intolerance, high dietary fat intake, and other problems may cause at least partially gamma
linolenic acid-deficiency. Supplemental gamma linolenic acid intake from evening primrose oil, black currant
seed oil, or borage oil may improve the deficiency. Moreover, intake of evening primrose oil may lead to
symptoms of temporal lobe epilepsy
22-25.

Evening Primrose oil benefits - on hair loss
Report on how evening primrose oil benefits on hair loss is not found.

Evening primrose oil benefits - weight loss
Haslett C and co-researchers reported there was no significant difference in the weight loss achieved by
those taking evening primrose oil compared with placebo in a study of 100 women with substantial obesity.
[A1]

Evening Primrose Oil Side Effects
Low doses of evening primrose oil is probably safe for most people. Evening primrose oil side effects
may include upset stomach, nausea, diarrhea, soft stools and headache for some people. Further, evening
primrose oil is a blood thinning agent, it may increase the chance of bleeding during or after surgery or for
the people with bleeding disorder. Evening primrose oil may also be linked to seizures in people suffered
from schizophrenia. Evening primrose oil and borage should not be used with anticonvulsants because they
may lower the seizure threshold. [AA1] Discuss with your doctor before taking any supplements.
evening primrose oil benefits, evening primrose oil side effects
evening primrose oil uses, hair loss & weight loss                   August 17, 2011
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